Apart from the models, other scholars have suggested conditions that must be present if the process of using technology is likely to be successful. One of those scholars that have caught the attention of many people in the field of technology integration is Donald Ely. Ely (1999) suggested eight conditions that must exist or be made available for adoption of an educational innovation to take place. The process of ICT integration is the process that involves the adoption of new innovations. According to Ely (1999), these conditions are interrelated and influence each other. This means the presence of one may not be sufficient to suggest success unless the others are also present. However, other conditions, according to Ely (1999) are more necessary than others. These conditions are:
1. Dissatisfaction with the status quo. This is the condition of the implementers when they feel that change is required. It is the situation that emanates from the emotional feeling of the implementers when they are dissatisfied with what is currently available. They perceive the current methods as insufficient and ineffective (Ely, 1999). Ely provides reflective phrases of those who are dissatisfied that gives an impression of how this condition exists: "Something is not right. Things could be better. Others are moving ahead, we are standing still. There must be something we can do to improve the situation". He says that this emotional state may be inert or induced and it is linked to leadership. So, if we understand what causes dissatisfaction and the extent of the dissatisfaction, we can help change it, and it would be easier to communicate innovations to the adopters.
2. Presence of sufficient knowledge and skills. In order to make the
implementation succeed, "the people who will ultimately implement any
innovation must possess sufficient knowledge and skills to do the job" (Ely,
1999). Ely (1999) says that it is especially evident when the innovation
involves use of a certain tool or a technique. People who will be involved in
the implementation of innovation must possess knowledge, technical
knowledge, and skills to be able to effect change. Without enough training to
use the tool or technique, the innovation will cease to exist. This condition has
consistently been ranked as the most influential among the eight conditions.
3. Availability of resources. This refers to appropriate and adequate resources to
be available and accessible to the users. According to Ely (1999), the
resources include hardware, software, publications, audiovisual, and other
teaching materials. These are required to make implementation work. This
means the institutions must provide the required resources to support the use of technology in teaching and learning. According to Ely, this condition is linked to commitment, reward and incentives, and leadership.
4. Availability of time. The adoption of the innovation takes time and is a long
process that needs to diffuse at...