Ideas Of Positive School Essay

1434 words - 6 pages

Positive school is one of the two major schools of criminology. As each criminology school,
Positive school tries to explain the behavior of delinquents. The development of this school
began with the philosophical approach of the founder of positivism – Auguste Comte. Positive
school was developed in Italy in the late 1900-s by Cesare Lombroso (pic. 1). Lombroso’s
student – Enrico Ferri, who provided social implications of
criminological positivism, defines Positive school as… “The positive
school consists of the following: study first the natural origin of a crime
and then it’s social and legal consequences in order to provide, by social
and legal means, the various remedies, which will have the greatest effect
on the various causes that produce it. This is our assumption, the
innovation we have made, not so much in our particular conclusion as in
our research method.” In modern humanistic society a lot of people,
who are related to the justice system, support the ideas of Positive school of criminology. This
school has own principles & divided into three basic categories: Biological, Psychological, and
Sociological.

Principles of Positive school begins with the idea, that criminal behavior is caused by
material forces (cars, jewelry, houses, electronics, drugs, etc.) beyond the control of the
individual (also called determinism). Determinism can be divided into two categories: hard
determinism (was used as an explanation only in capitalist society, stated that poverty drives
people to commit a crime) and soft determinism (poverty is one of a lot of factors, which drives
people to commit a crime). Positive school prefers to use natural definitions of crime. As a main
research method this school use a scientific method (pic. 2). It is usually used to show the cause-
effect relationships. Positive school also supports the opinion that criminal behavior is a disease
subject, which seeks individualized treatment. Last but not least, Positive
school gives the dismissal of Free Will, believes in rehabilitation, and do not
believe in punishment and death penalty. Each of positivistic school
directions and studies support these ideas and principles.

Biological theories focus on anatomical, physiological or genetic
abnormalities and their contributions to crime. Biological positivists think
that if Charles Darwin's Theory of evolution was scientific as applied to
animals, the same approach should be applied to "man" as an "animal".
The positive side of Biological perspective is explanation of
individuals’ abnormalities and negative is inability to explain crime rates
or crime over the time. Also this theory view criminals as defective and
biological inferior. This theory includes a lot of studies, which express
different opinions and relationships between biology and crime.

Early studies of Biological perspective includes: “Family Tree Study” by Robert Dugsdale
(he studied the family tree of one...

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