2. DEVELOP AND MAINTAIN THE HELPING RELATIONSHIP
2.1 IDENTIFY AND DESCRIBE SOME OF THE KEY CONCEPTS FROM THE THREE ‘ROOTS’ OF COUNSELLING: HUMANISTIC, COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL AND PSYCHODYNAMIC.
There are three main approaches in counselling these are the Humanistic, Cognitive Behavioural (C.B.T) and Psychodynamic. Within this essay I want to identify and describe some of their key concepts starting with the Humanistic Approach.
The Humanistic Approach or (Person Centred Therapy) began in the 1950’s due to theorists views that there were limitations within the prior two approaches of C.B.T and Psychodynamic. The two main theorists associated with this movement are Abraham Maslow and Carl ...view middle of the document...
• Unconditional Positive Regard: - the Counsellor accepts the Client unconditionally and non-judgementally leaving the Client to freely explore all their thoughts, feelings and behaviour, positive or negative without any danger of condemnation and without any need to meet any standards to earn positive regard from the Counsellor.
• Empathic understanding: - the Counsellor accurately understands the Client’s thoughts, feelings and meaning from their own perspective demonstrating that the Client is being accepted and their views valued.
With these three core conditions in place the Client will be able to build a healthy relationship with the Counsellor who will facilitate the discovery of their own perspectives and encourage them to make their own action plans and activate their own self healing process and flourish.
Carl Rogers noted also that the drive for self-actualisation was common to all living things though particularly in humans from birth there is a drive or motivating force present, this is what enables people to strive for wholeness. This concept within the Humanistic Approach or Person Centred counselling places the emphasis on the innate ability of the Client to be able to regulate and improve their own lives if allowed to do so. When the Client attends counselling it means their actualizing tendency may have become latent through low self worth or experience of incongruence of self-concept.
Carl Rogers believed there were 3 key parts to this self-concept these being: -
• Self image – how we see ourselves.
• Self esteem – how much we value ourselves.
• Ideal self – how we wish we could be.
So in conclusion Person Centred Therapy is non-directive process and works on the basis that the Counsellor is empowering the Client to take centre stage and use the therapeutic environment and the Counsellor as a listener and a sounding board who may offer response in the form of paraphrasing of their significant statements. This self-analysis should lead to examination of the Clients own thoughts, feelings and beliefs about themselves and bring about self-realisation and appropriate action through challenging any incongruence of self-concept.
There have been some criticisms of Person Centred Therapy one of the most common is the lack of scientific study into the effectiveness of the therapy, one approach that has a lot of research into its effectiveness is Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or C.B.T for short addresses dysfunctional and maladaptive emotions, behaviours and cognitive processes. Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck are two of the main psychologists who came up with therapies that merged into C.B.T. Albert Ellis developed Rational Therapy and Aaron Beck developed Cognitive Therapy both of these therapies evaluated how thoughts brought up...