Define And Explain Declarative, Psychodynamic, And Cognitive Psychology

1611 words - 6 pages

BehaviouralBehavioural psychology is created by the environment because of the way it acts upon the organism to make it behave in the way it does. This is a natural progression from the views of Charles Darwin where the environment was seen to be the sole agency responsible for the evolution of all organic life. While these ideas (brought about my Darwin) required extremely long periods of time to take effect on the organism, the theory was applied to Man with the idea that the response or effect (i.e. behaviour towards the subject) results from immediate or recent environmental forces or causes (i.e. stimuli). Main psychologists in this area were Watson, Skinner, James, Thorndike and Pavlov.Skinner developed a psychology that concentrates not on the person but on those variables and forces in the environment that influence a person and that may be directly observed, presenting behaviourism and learning theory in its purest, most extreme form. He chose to describe variables and forces in the environment that shape behaviour rather than to develop a theory of personality because he believes that the term ?personality? and concepts of internal structure are ultimately superfluous. Thus, behaviour is best understood in terms of responses to the environment.Operant conditioning involves reinforcing and shaping spontaneous responses. It differs from classical conditioning in terms of the nature of the behaviour (which is freely made rather than elicited by a stimulus) and the nature of the reinforcement (which follows rather than precedes the behaviour).Skinner distinguished three different schedules of reinforcement ? continuous, interval, and ratio reinforcement ? and described their effectiveness. A continuous schedule is more effective for initially developing behaviour but a variable ratio schedule is more effective for maintaining it.Skinner also observed behavioural control and came to the conclusion that punishment is the most common technique used, yet by no means the most successful. He felt that, ?punishment may stop or block a behaviour but it does not necessarily eliminate it. The organism may seek other means of acquiring the same ends.? Generally, if punishment creates fear, the fear will eventually become diminished, the original behaviour will recur and may also lead to undesired side effects: anger, hatred, or helplessness. Skinner then went on to emphasize that positive reinforcements are most effective in initiating and maintaining desired behaviour and by identifying human?s reinforcement patterns, we can strengthen those that are most effective and develop more efficient means of controlling behaviour. Skinner?s final modification therapy consisted of restructuring the environment so that undesired behaviours are eliminated and more desired ones substituted.PsychodynamicMeaning: The interaction of various conscious and unconscious mental or emotional processes (often associated with dreaming), is thought to be the way someone or...

Find Another Essay On Define and explain Declarative, Psychodynamic, and Cognitive psychology

The Behaviorist and Cognitive Approaches to Psychology

1422 words - 6 pages The Behaviorist and Cognitive Approaches to Psychology In this essay I am going to explore two of the major approaches to Psychology, Cognitive theories and Behaviorist theories. I will discuss in some detail the two approaches, state how they compare and illustrate the similarities and the differences between them. John Watson, one of the founders of Behaviorism, based his theories on the principles of learning

Developmental Psychology (physical, cognitive, and psychosocial )

2580 words - 10 pages will not see the signs of any chest hair until their late teens or early twenties. As the adolescent years progress, the physical performance of boys continues to improve, whereas that of girls often levels off or even declines.Cognitive - Adolescents (ages 11-12) enter the cognitive stage known as formal operations, and are able to think more abstractly and hypothetically than school-age children. They can define "justice" abstractly, in terms of

I/O Psychology: Functionalism, Technology, Training, and Cognitive Psychology

2856 words - 12 pages I/O Psychology: Functionalism, Technology, Training, and Cognitive Psychology The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how functionalism and cognitive psychology align with Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychology, and defend the use functionalism and cognitive psychology, schools of thought to support the research topic on the effect of technological advancements, such as avatars, holograms, and computer/web-based instruction in employee

Psychodynamic Theory and Crime

1453 words - 6 pages Psychodynamic (Psychoanalytical) theory was developed by Sigmund Freud in the late 1800’s and has gained increasing popularity in the history of criminality (Siegel, 2005). Freud believed that every individual carries “[the] residue of the most significant emotional attachments of our childhood, which then guides our future interpersonal relationships” (Siegel). Freud theorized that the personality is a three-part structure made up of the id

IB Psychology Option PSD Theory: Historical and Cultural Influences on Psychodynamic Perspective

1353 words - 5 pages psychological perspective does not exist but noble attempts should be embraced and analyzed instead of rebuked and insulted. We can use the psychodynamic perspective to gain greater insight and learn from its strengths and weaknesses.BibliographyWade, Carole and Tavris, Carol. Psychology (7th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002

Biological Social and Cognitive outlooks on Depression - Psychology - Essay

1061 words - 5 pages 1 Tenio Ayeni Psychology Professor Senecal December 5, 2017 Final Paper Depression is a mental disorder that more than 350 million people suffer from worldwide. It does not take sides, white or black, straight or gay, tall or short, it can affect any type of person. A continuous research on this disorder has shown phycologist how depression affects one’s biological makeup, cognitive, and social factors removing them from society and placing

Piaget and Vygotsky: The Psychology of Cognitive Development

1886 words - 8 pages This essay concerns the psychology of cognitive development. Cognitive development can be explained in terms of the acquisition, construction and progressive change in thought processes such as memory, problem-solving and decision-making that occurs from childhood to adulthood (in Smith, P.K., Cowie, H & Blades, M. 2003). Major pioneers in this area and whose work has been the foundation of much research in cognitive psychology are among Jean

Ted Bundy and Psychodynamic Theory

1273 words - 5 pages assaults, reckless disregard for safety of others, lack of remorse (Varcarolis, Carson, & Shoemaker, 2006). Psychodynamic theorists believe that this disorder begins during infancy when infants either develop trust or mistrust towards their caregivers. In the case of Ted this very issue caused a lot of turmoil for him. He grew up thinking that his grandparents were his parents and that is sister was his mother. I think that this was very

The Biological and Psychodynamic Models of Abnormality

595 words - 2 pages Though at one point in time clinical scientists believed in only one model of abnormality, we now have six very different models. The original model of abnormality was, unfortunately, the product of cultural beliefs. But because no one model can be deemed complete on its own, competing models have since developed to strive for the comprehensive means for treatment. For example, the biological model and the psychodynamic model take very different

Report on Cognitive Psychology and its effects on Depressions and disorders

546 words - 2 pages ).Although cognitive therapy is short-term, there is neither minimum nor maximum time that a patient must remain in therapy. The main goal of the cognitive therapist is to assist the patient by helping them realize and become more attentive to their moods and thoughts and be able to practice alternative thinking outside of therapy (Gilbert, 2004).References:Gilbert, P. (October 22, 2004). How Cognitive Therapy can be used to help depression. GP. Retrieved on January 19, 2004 from proquest.umi.com.Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2004). Abnormal Psychology (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Discussing Attitudes from two opposing angles in social psychology: Cognitive and Discursive

2757 words - 11 pages Within social psychology the topic of "attitude", and all that surrounds this label, is regarded my many as the focal point and therefore among the most explored. Whether studies investigate attitudes as inner cognitive states and processes or as evaluations of a constructing nature within speech and writing, the importance remains equal within social psychology. These two types of perspectives, cognitive or discursive, will be explored, in

Similar Essays

Cognitive Behavioral Theory And Psychodynamic Theory

1948 words - 8 pages spontaneously occurring (Payne, 2005). Psychodynamic theory and cognitive behavioural theory both try and explain human behaviour. Both theories fit into the individualist-reformist corner of the triangle because they both seek to recover stability or restore social order again. In contrast to this, is about the ways in which an individual thinks which affects their behaviour whereas psychodynamic theory is more about resurfacing underlying

Comparing Psychodynamic Psychotherapy And Person Centered Psychology

1612 words - 6 pages Comparing Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Person-Centered Psychology The counseling profession has a broad spectrum of possibilities when it comes to choosing which psychological approach to take. The field of counseling takes many forms and offers many career options, from school counseling to marriage and family therapy. As there are numerous styles in existence, it is important to be aware of the many approaches available to take. For my

Behavioral And Psychodynamic Psychology In The Treatment Of Addictions

1320 words - 6 pages the world are fighting to beat these additions. Two theoretical perspectives that play heavily into the treatment process are Behavioural and Psychodynamic psychology. “Behavioural psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on observable behaviours. Conditioning, reinforcement and punishment are key concepts used by behaviourists. Learn more about classical conditioning and operant conditioning as well as some of the major behaviourist

Learning And Cognitive Perspectives In Psychology

1423 words - 6 pages behavior to increase the human knowledge and happiness. Unlike Psychologist today, scholars did not rely deeply on empirical evidence. They often used observations based on anecdotes or descriptions of similar cases. Early approaches of psychology eventually evolved into the five major theoretical perspectives: the biological, learning, cognitive, sociocultural, and psychodynamic perspectives, which now dominate the field. These approaches