The nursing process is a five stage systematic framework, and based on the problem solving approach; it forms the foundation for nursing practice to facilitate focussed, individualised care planning for patients (Yildirim and Ozkahraman 2011). This assignment will serve to identify the five stages of the nursing process: Assessment, Nursing Diagnosis, Planning, Implementation and Evaluation. The skills: Communication, Observation, Critical Thinking and Reflection involved within the nursing process in partnership with the patient will also be highlighted.
The first stage of the nursing process is assessment. This is a continuous process from hospital admission to discharge. It is about compiling objective and subjective information related to patients, through skills of communication, observation and clinical knowledge and interpretation for decision making (Baath 2011). Objective data is collected from past medical records, physical examination and laboratory tests, while subjective data is the client’s views on their state of health (Corkin and Cardwell 2011). This information gives a comprehensive understanding on the health status of the patient. It also develops the basis for care planning and forms the remainder of the whole process, making it a crucial stage (Nazarko 2011).
Assessment consists of a number of skills for example, communication, observation and critical thinking. Communication is an essential skill for nursing particularly in relation to the Multidisciplinary team and patient rapport. Communication quality, determines the outcome of care, patient wellbeing, and effective therapeutic partnerships (Boscart 2009). Both verbal and non-verbal communication is fundamental in nursing which in turn affects patient satisfaction and wellbeing (Doss 2011). Observation is also vital, particularly when undertaking physical examinations and assessments. It is critical that it is used in a multisensory manner for it to be fully effective (Pellico 2009). For example, a sense of hearing and touch may need to be used during observation of a wound healing, whilst simultaneously interacting with the patient. The nurse must then decide, with the help of the patient, what was identified from the healing wound, and use critical thinking to make effective and safe clinical decisions (Kisiel and Perkins 2006). Critical thinking not only involves thinking systematically, and questioning judgements and reasons related to decision making (Farell 2011), but it also requires all the skills identified above, throughout the whole of nursing practice.
The Nursing Diagnosis, being the second stage in the process, involves interpretation of data, which may result in other potential problems (Junttila 2010). Clinical judgements and nursing goals are then made based on the data collected from the assessment stage (Huckabay 2009). For instance, a patient may present with obesity, possibly resulting in high blood pressure or depression. A goal of care...