Ideology And Politics Essay

1754 words - 7 pages

The purpose of this paper is to treat the similarly and differences of liberalism. Iwill use John Locke and Adam Smith to represent classical liberals. John Stuart Mill andJohn Maynard Keynes will be used to show contemporary liberals.John LockeIn John Locke's Second Treatise of Government he develops a theory ofgovernment as a product of a social contract, which when broken justifies the creation ofa new government for the protection of life, liberty and property. He begins his argumentby developing a theory of the state of nature which is...what state all men are naturally in, and that is, a state of perfect freedomto order their actions and dispose of their possessions and persons as theythink fit, within the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave ordepending upon the will of any other man.1The state of nature includes the "...law of nature to govern it, which obliges everyone;and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind who will but consult it..."2 The stateof nature also includes inequality...since gold and silver, being little useful to the life of a man in proportionto food, raiment, and carriage, has its value only from the consent of men,whereof labour yet makes, in great part, the measure, it is plain that menhave agreed to a disproportional and unequal possession of the earth.3In Locke's state on nature there are also three distinct problems.First there is no established settled known law. As each man consults his own law ofnature he receives a slightly different interpretation.Secondly there no known and indifferent judge. Which creates the problem of trying todecide which is the correct law of nature which will be followed in an impartial manor.Thirdly there is insufficient force of execution. This is the problem of how to carry outthe decision of the law of nature on another when he has a different interpretation ordoesn't consult the law of nature.Locke states that the three problems in the state of nature would be best solved bycoming together to form a new government to protect there property.The great and chief end therefore, of men's coming into commonwealths,and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of theirproperty...4And goes further into what this new government should be empowered to dofirstly...established, settled known law, received and allowed by commonconsent to be the standard of right and wrong, and the common measure todecide all controversies between them...secondly...there wants a knownand indifferent judge, with authority to determine all differences according tothe established law...thirdly...There often wants power to back and supportthe sentence when right, and to give it due execution. They who by anyinjustice offend, will seldom fail, where they are able, by force to make goodtheir injustice...5In Locke's government men only give up the right to the above mentioned things,to create the law for themselves, to judge the law for themselves, and to execute the lawfor...

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