This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Effect Of Extraction Methods And Solvents Used On Dates' Extraction Yields

2431 words - 10 pages

The date of date palm, (Phoenix dactylifera) Mazafati cultivar, was selected from the Bam region in Iran. All samples obtained were in tamr stage. The aim of this study was to investigate the best extraction method to achieve the highest amount of sugar from dates flesh. In this research, water extraction was assessed by ultrasonic water-bath, stirring condition and also alcohol extraction with Ethanol and Methanol as the four different treatments. Sugar compounds e. g glucose, fructose and sucrose were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results show that the ultrasonic extraction method produce the highest yield of the sugar compounds compare with the other extractions methods (p<0.05).
Keywords: date fruit, sugar analysis, water extraction, alcohol extraction, ultrasonic

1. Introduction
Date fruit is a product of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) which is native in Northern Africa and Middle East, especially in Iran. This is also cultivated in other parts of the world. The five largest producers are Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Algeria which account for about 65% of the total world production. Iran contributes to approximately 15% of the world `s production and is the second major producer after Egypt (~17% of world production). During 2000 to 2007 the production of dates increases by 2.1%, i.e. 6626329 tones to 6768774 tones, respectively. However, only 37.14% of this fruit that was harvested in 2007 was consumed fresh. This was mainly due to the fast degradation of the fruit upon storage consumption (FAO, 2007). Additionally, lack of suitable technology to store the fresh fruit at the temperature climate also posed this problem.
For sugary food there are many physico-chemical characteristics like sugar composition, water activity, Color, rheology/texture, melting point and etc that can evaluate the quality of these foods.
Dates have high total sugar contents, e.g. between 65%- 88 %( Al-hooti, Jiuan, & Quabazard, 1995; Al-Farsi, Alasalvar, Morris, Baron, & Shahidi, 2005a; Myhara, Karkalas, & Taylor, 1999). Varied amount of sugar extracted from dates are associated to the variety of the fruit and also the method of extraction (Elleuch et al., 2008; Ismail, Haffar, Baalbaki, Mechref, & Henry, 2006).
Many researches were evaluated on dates range from the investigation on the antioxidant activity (Biglari, AlKarkhi, & Easa, 2008; Mansouri, Embarek, Kokkalou, & Kefalas, 2005), the chemical composition and characteristic (Elleuch et al., 2008), Compositional and functional characteristics of date syrups (Al-Farsi et al. 2007), to the effect of ultrasound on the extraction process (Entezari, Nazary, & Khodaparast, 2004).
In date’s syrup industry, the fruits are mixed with water and heated for around one hour at temperature more than 50 °C so that sugar, can be extracted. Some investigation showed that this method damages some nutritive components and darkens of the extracted...

Find Another Essay On Effect of Extraction Methods and Solvents Used on Dates' Extraction Yields

Theories on Term Extraction Project Essay

960 words - 4 pages Terminologies are becoming increasing important nowadays, especially for domain-specific language. In order to minimise the communication barriers, either in linguistic or cultural level, it is important to agree upon how concepts should be related to each other in a specialised area and which terms should be used to represent which concepts. This essay provides theoretical foundation for the term extraction project about aviation biofuel

Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuel Exploration and Extraction

1317 words - 5 pages As the fossil fuels, such as coal, gas, LPG and coal mixed gas and so on, has been used in the modern production process since the industrial revolution happened, the environment effects of fossil fuels’ exploration and extraction is the biggest concerns for public life. To illustrate this, data collected by Marland, Boden, Andres, Brenkert and Johnston (2003) points out that the fossil fuels industry has caused the release of approximately 337

Extraction and clean-up of imazapyr and imazapic residues in selected fish species using solid phase extraction (SPE)

2145 words - 9 pages herbicide either individually or simultaneously in biological samples. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of different solvents for extraction of imazapyr and imazapic residues using different types of SPE cartridges for the extraction and clean-up procedure prior to analysis by high performance chromatography (HPLC). Recoveries experiments would be conducted to confirm the validity of the methods. Findings from this study would allow us to

Global Issues In The Environment And Extraction Of Metals

3684 words - 15 pages , a quarter of all life on land, could become extinct in just decades due to man-made climate change.Sea level rise of 110 to 770 millimetres could occur within a centuryBibliographyBooksCayne, Bernard / The new book of popular science volume 6. Published in 1984. Used for finding different methods of extracting metals.Graham, Ian / Solar power. Published in 1998. Used for finding how photovoltaic cells and solar ponds work.Mulvany, Christine

Process of DNA extraction of animal tissue

1021 words - 5 pages , 2011). The purpose of DNA extraction is to obtain DNA in a relatively purified form which can be used for further investigations such as PCR and DNA sequencing. Many different methods are available for isolating genomic DNA. Modification and optimization of DNA extraction methods are usually done for different types of cell (Dhaliwal, 2013). Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) is a preferable method that can be used for isolating the genomic

Extraction of DNA from Plant Tissues

1119 words - 4 pages , strawberries contain enzymes that help to break down cell walls called cellulases and pectinases.In the experiment, it was known that salt and shampoo was used. The role of the salt in the experiment is to neutralize the charges on the sugar phosphate backbone as mentioned by (Oswald, 2007). He also states that the shampoo used in the experiment is to split the phospholipid bilayer, which is the cell membrane of the plant cell, allowing the contents of the

An experimental study on hydrothermal treatment of sweet sorghum bagasse for the extraction of hemicellulose

1830 words - 8 pages Hydrothermal treatment can be used for the on-farm processing of lignocellulosic materials. This study investigated the hydrothermal treatment of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) powder for the extraction of hemicellulose from it. Changes in chemical composition of SSB and the formation of sugars and hydrolytic products were studied. The optimum conditions of 12.54% (g/g) substrate concentration and 90 minutes of isothermal treatment residence time

Biology Lab Report on the extraction of Chlorophyl from Plant Leaves

869 words - 3 pages AbstractThis experiment focused on extracting and separating pigments of Chloroplast. For the procedure green leaves were grinded in a mortar with some chemicals and the fluid was filtrated to use for further analysis. Stripes of this solution were put on a filter paper and later, after dried placed into a beacon of solvent. After this the chloroplast pigments were separated by the solvent into groups of more or less soluble pigments.AimHow many

DNA extraction of blood and analysis of phosphate acquisition mutants of e. coli - Assignment

727 words - 3 pages TRANSPORTER 1 WILD TYPE MUTANT 2 MUTANT MUTANT 3 WILD TYPE WILD TYPE 4 MUTANT WILD TYPE Table 3; Genotype- include genotype based on alkaline phosphatase and pi transporter Q3. The genotype of alkaline phosphatase for strain 1 and 3 is wild type, due to the release of phosphate and a yellow coloured product, caused by the artificial substrate for alkaline phosphatase (PNPP). This indicates, that strain 1


1337 words - 6 pages Abtract: The protein collagen has been sought after for its many industrial and medical applications. Usually collagen is extracted from bovine sources; the search is on to extract it from the vast unutilized marine resources. Acid soluble collagen was isolated from skin, arms and visceral organs of Octopus areolatus. This particular species was found in abundance but commercially unworthy. It is also a popular catch used as fish bait

Comparative Study for Feature Extraction of Hevea Leaflet Positions

758 words - 4 pages classification. Plant classification and recognition methods are being performed on plant components such as flowers, leaves, and barks of leaves [3]. Nevertheless, reproductive organs like flowers are unfavorable for plant classification since they are only available for a short period of time in a particular season. Therefore, leaves are more suitable for plant classification. Leaf based plant classification methods are proposed by unique

Similar Essays

Extraction And Recycling Of Metals Chemistry Notes

1012 words - 4 pages used for.Economic considerations must be taken into account when extracting metals. We are using increasing amount of metals. The price of the metal can fluctuate because of the number of factors such as difficulty and cost of extraction, abundance of ores and the concentration of metals in the ores, location of ores and cost of transport, ability to recycle the metal. The energy needed to extract metal from ores is determined by activity of metal

Extraction Of Eugenol Essay

2023 words - 8 pages from an external source into the distillation flask. The direct method of steam distillation will be used in this experiment and is carried out on a semi-micro scale using the apparatus shown in Figure 1 below:Figure 14Ground cloves and water will be charged into the distillation flask shown in the figure. The mixture will then be heated to boiling on a hot plate with an aluminum heating block and the distillate (a eugenol/water mixture) will be

The Extraction Of Nymphaea Essay

6177 words - 25 pages 15. The water hyacinth can be used as a substrate for compost or biogas production. The sludge from the biogas process contains almost all of the nutrients of the substrate and can be used as a fertiliser. The use of water hyacinth compost on different crops has resulted in improved yields. The high protein content makes the water hyacinth possible to use as fodder for cows, goats, sheep and chickens. Water hyacinth, due to its abundant growth and

A Perspective On Super Critical Extraction And Herbal Extracts

1261 words - 6 pages hazardous nature of many solvents used and the environmental dangers they pose. Extraction Technologies The two most commonly used methods for extraction are 1. Traditional extraction methods: The first method and commonly seen methods of extraction combines various processes like maceration, infusion, digestion, percolation, decoction, hydro-distillation and solvent extraction using organic solvents which are suitable. The extraction may be