Agreements on International Public Policy have never been as abundant as in the last century. In the meantime, Globalisation has become a major phenomenon around the world, at various levels. So, it will be interesting to know if globalisation makes agreements on International Public Policy easier or harder.
Looking towards history, Globalisation has deeply affected both national and international way of governance. Focus will be made on the economical and political aspects of globalisation and its effects on IPP1 in those fields.
“Globalisation” has been very difficult to define clearly, and many scholars tried to give a accurate description. To link globalisation to IPP, let's see how agreements on IPP evolved concurrently to globalisation, some successfully, some with failure.
Aspects like climate change, human right law, the European Union, WTO, World Bank and the financial crisis of 2008 will be examined to demonstrate that globalisation had a paradoxical effect on global governance, but mostly positive.
As globalisation was expanding, agreements on IPP were made easier towards international institutions. But, a question rises among this assumption: Is it ONLY globalisation that eased agreements on IPP? Or does crises play a role too ?
At the end of this paper, the relation between IPP and crises will be analysed and linked to globalisation in order to conclude on the topic.
1: IPP = International Public Policy
Correlation between IPP and Globalisation
“Globalisation” is an old process that started way before the 20th century. In fact, the first signs of globalisation appeared with the first merchants that used to travel from a country to an another to buy and sell theirs goods. But “globalisation” goes further than trading goods. In fact, it has been very difficult to define it clearly.
Moreover, globalisation has to be differentiated from Internationalisation and regionalisation. Internationalization refers to the increasing importance of international trade, international relations, treaties, alliances.2.
Regionalisation means a less interconnected world , with a stronger regional spirit. (Mercosur for example).
A definition of “Globalisation” would be that : “Globalisation typically refers to the process by which different economies and societies become more closely integrated3.”
Another definition would be that: “Globalisation describes a process by which national and regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through the global network of trade, communication, immigration and transportation.”4
According to those definitions, globalisation seems to be a process that creates an international market for goods and services, that creates a rise of standardised norms and social behaviour, that facilitated centralisation of international politics through supranational entities such as the United Nations, the World Bank or the World Trade organisation.
Looking towards history, markets...