This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Impact Of Transit On Congestion Reduction

1694 words - 7 pages

Traffic congestion is reaching to an extreme level in many metropolitan areas of various developing and developed countries. An efficient public transport can alleviate substantial operational and monetary effects on traffic congestion (Hyman and Mayhew, 2002; Pucher et al. 2007; Vuchic, 1999). In urban transportation areas, traffic congestion is considered one of the major problems (Cervero, 1991; Downs, 1992). During congested and peak hours, public transports can transmit a convincing amount of trips by improving overall transportation capacity and can discharge the surplus demand on crowded road networks.
The average congestion reduction benefits for 85 US cities (Schrank and Lomax, 2005) can be estimated as 42.0 cents per mile or 26.1 cents per km of reduced auto travel (US$, 2005). It was done by considering 18,243 millions of congestion reduction benefits resulting from 43,403 passenger-miles of public transit travel. Here, a one-to-one relationship has been assumed between auto and public transit passenger miles. Using similar assumptions, the congestion reduction benefits of $736 million (Nelson et al. 2006) for public transport in Washington, D.C., can be interpreted as 20.4 cents (US$, 2000) per km of reduced auto travel.
There were 13 studies of transit strikes reviewed by Van Exel and Rietveld (2001) to determine impacts on travel impacts and congestion. The study showed that most travelers switch to car as a driver or passenger. Other travelers switch to alternative modes and some trips are cancelled. Mode shift to car driving was 5 to 50 percent (average 28.6%), mode shift to car lift was 21 to 60 percent (average 29.6%), shift to other modes was 23 to 60 percent (average 39.8%), and trip suppression (stop travelling) was between 5 and 15 percent (average 10.3%). Thus the study showed more dependence on car or taxi rather than transit increases the congestion in road.
There might be some people who would try to get a lift by car during transit strikes, like one group does ridesharing (additional passengers in a vehicle that would be making a trip anyway) and the other group does chauffeuring (additional auto travel specifically to carry a passenger) (Litman, 2006). This analysis suggests that removing public transport can result in increased traffic congestion of about a shift of 20.2 percent of public transport to car driving. However,

Litman’s work also suggests that ex-transit users might also generate extra car travel in the form of chauffeuring trips.
Anlezark et al. (1994) examined mode shift outcomes resulting from the introduction of new Transit Link (express bus services) in Adelaide, Australia. The study showed that about 20 percent of users are new to public transport and of these the highest proportion are formerly car drivers. Mode shift from car drivers was from 8 to 23 percent (average 14.1%), mode shift from car passengers was from 1 to 12 percent (average 5.7%), that results to a congestion reduction of...

Find Another Essay On Impact of Transit on Congestion Reduction

Impact of Technology on Music Essay

1418 words - 6 pages Impact of Technology on Music The introduction to the internet in the early nineties and the creation of broadband, MP3, and the file sharing network known as “peer to peer” has completely revolutionised the music industry. A large percentage of music is today downloaded over the internet, and not bought over the counter in a record store. This essay will address the impact of new technology on music, and how music is distributed. To do

Impact of Globalization on Pakistan Essay

7267 words - 29 pages IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON PAKISTANByABDUL MOHSINGlobalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and the governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has many fold effects. It affects economic development and prosperity, culture, environment, political systems, and human physical well-being in societies around the

Impact of Internet on Marketing

3215 words - 13 pages Abstract This paper examines how the increasing use of internet has changed the marketing industry globally. We can see in the present trend how marketing through the internet has created a great impact on attracting the consumers in many aspects. Marketing through e-commerce have overcome the complexities that are faced in traditional marketing tools. The main focus of this study is to assess the impact of growth of the number of Internet


5468 words - 22 pages Untitled IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON PAKISTAN By ABDUL MOHSIN Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and the governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has many

Impact of Deafness on Children

743 words - 3 pages their disability. The impact of deafness on a child can be somewhat disheartening and sad. The impact on its social development is that the interaction it has with people who are not deaf. The majority of social development deals with gestures (Marschark 92). Gestures deal with how a child can be social with other people, for example using hand signal gestures with the thumb and index fingers or body gestures to interact with them. Another

Impact of Divorce on Adolescents

2957 words - 12 pages married in the first place with only a fifty percent chance that it will last. They will joke that marriage is a life sentence and that the number one cause of divorce is being married; but divorce is not a joking matter. Those who have not witnessed or been involved in a divorce do not understand the impact it has on all those involved, no matter the age range, but particularly those who are in adolescence. In Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law

Impact of Telephone on Society

1640 words - 7 pages Impact of Telephone on Society Many inventions revolutionized society and one example is the telephone, which was introduced to society in 1876. The inventor, Alexander Graham Bell developed this idea and the telephone made him famous because communication would never be the same after the development of the telephone. The telephone made an incredible impact on society. The impact could be seen through the quickness of communication, business

Impact of Divorce on Children

1015 words - 4 pages " Impact of Divorce on Children"What are the effects of divorce on children? To answer this it is necessary to examine the impact of divorce on children's mental health, their learning ability and relationships. The objective of this paper is to describe the effects of parental separation on children who are at different developmental stages and learning levels.Divorce can negatively effect children by giving them long-term stress and insecurity

Impact of rainfall on agriculture

1415 words - 6 pages situation has an adverse impact on the society as those who cannot get access to food may want to obtain it through unfair means. Often in a situation of drought the small farmers are taken advantage of as the wealthy want to buy their assets at cheap prices thereby increasing inequalities. Amartya Sen in his article ‘Poverty and famines’ in 1981 studied the impact of drought on the income levels of rich and poor. The Food and Agriculture Organization

Impact of Globalization on Terrorism

1575 words - 6 pages Globalization is affecting most everything in the world today by mixing cultures, beliefs, people, and ideas together in the melting pot of society. Since terrorism has taken the impact of globalization it is leaving the world in a war of terror and a desperate effort to unite against the growing terrorist groups. After the numerous, tragic world wide events stemmed by terrorism such as: 9/11, bombing of the London subway, and the Beslan school

Impact of Music on Culture

1028 words - 4 pages Perhaps the most formative years for rock and roll were from 1945 to 1964. It is evident that the social climate of the time period shaped music. However, the music also shaped the social climate. The musical meaning of the songs of the era is vital to an understanding of the social implications of the music. On a primitive level, the lyrics of a song give some insight into its musical meaning. Often, however, the lyrics paint an incomplete

Similar Essays

Impact Of Foreign Remittances On Economic Growth And Poverty Reduction In Pakistan

2476 words - 10 pages -December FY13), State Bank of Pakistan statistics stated. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: • To analyze the impact of remittances on poverty and economic growth. • To recommend a policy to improve for economic growth through foreign remittances. • To recommend a policy to eliminate poverty through foreign remittances. HYPOTHESIS: Hypothesis 1: Ho: There is no impact of foreign remittances on poverty reduction. H1: There is impact

The Effect Of The Congestion Charge On Businesses In Central London

3981 words - 16 pages impact, with about 70 per cent of respondents to the survey claiming their income had suffered because of congestion charging. Retail stores are hugely affected as they rely mainly on passing trade which is reduced. Manher Manny, owner of M&S City convenience store, said his business had fallen by 30 per cent. He said "Between 5.30am, when I open, and 7am I have lost the entire custom. Now people just drive past because they want to beat the

A Case Study On Traffic Congestion In Vancouver Downtown *Note That Grammar Is Not A Factor In The Grading System Of Any Ib Geography Assignment

943 words - 4 pages are incorporated and customized to suit the circumstances of Vancouver Downtown. The ultimate goal of the plan is to reduce traffic congestion, increases the efficiency in transportation and livability in downtown. The plan is further subdivided into 7 sections: the road network plan, transit plan, pedestrian plan, bicycle plan, good movement plan, parking, and IT system.The Road Network plan focuses on the improvement of motility and

Impact Of It On Business Essay

1968 words - 8 pages This paper analyses the impact IT has had on business and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of IT for business today. Today the technology is so advanced, information technology is nearly applied in any filed. Next I will describe it from application of IT in business and application of IT on education. And I will introduce IT simply and concretely introduce IT on education. Although IT makes it convenient to run the business, it also