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Effects Of Globalisation Case Study China

1159 words - 5 pages

China is the world's seventh largest economy and the largest country in terms of population size. It has also become the 8th largest world exporter of manufactured goods and the second largest economy in the world, after the United States, on the basis of purchasing power parity. The impact of globalisation on China has been profound, having an impact in a number of different areas.Government Strategies to promote economic growth and developmentBetween 1978 to 1994 China abandoned agricultural collectivisation, replacing it with a system of household responsibility, allowing individuals to make their own production decisions. Individuals could sell their surplus output in free markets after the state quota was met. This lead to dramatic increases in food production and incomes. Surplus income was invested into privately run town and village enterprises responsible for light manufacturing. The government also increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry and permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprises in services designed to increase productivity with the 'profit incentive'. Today, non-state economies account for 40% of China's gross domestic product (GDP).In 1980 Special Economic Zones were established in the southern coastal provinces of China as a result of its 'Open Door' policy, adopted towards foreign trade and investment. These zones attracted foreign investment through incentives offered such as low tax rates, exemption from import duties, cheap labour and power, and less stringent regulations. This resulted in an increase in trade from 10% of Gross National Product (GNP) in 1978 to 36% of GNP by 1996. In 1992 tariff rates were reduced from 32% to 19%, supporting China's drive for foreign investment.Economic growth, development and quality of lifeChina has been experiencing a high rate of economic growth above 10% per annum. It uses foreign investment funds to finance export industries, enabling it to maintain large foreign currency reserves and receive technology transfers from industrial countries.Higher productivity and the increased flow of money entering China as a result of globalisation have been increasing development and the quality of life, reducing the number of people below the poverty line. Although incomes in China are very low, the poverty line reflects absolute poverty based on the minimum subsistence necessary to maintain life. Higher incomes have allowed for more investment for further development in the country and living standards. The life expectancy at birth has also dramatically increased from 35 in 1950 to 72 in 2002.The Human Development Index is a number less than 1 (1 being the highest) calculated to enable the comparison of standards of living across different countries. It is based on life expectancy at birth, levels of educational attainment and gross domestic product per capita. China has a Human Development Index of .721, making it a medium developed country.Global Trade,...

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