Implicit role of metabolism in microbial control
For many years, the process of microbial control has become one of the most discussed topics around the world. Numerous studies have evolved from the process of microbial control and the implication of metabolism. Metabolism in microbial control is one of the most important pathways into disrupting the chemical reactions of microbes. By disturbing the catabolic and anabolic process of energy, the cell can no longer use ATP to synthesize or to continue on multiplying. As metabolism plays a major role in microbial synthesis, microbiologists use this same resource as a method of controlling microbes. By disrupting the cell’s metabolic process, microbiologists are able to provide alternative ways that society, hospitals, and health care providers could used to control microbial growth. Hence, microbiologist are using physical, chemical, and chemotherapy to control microbial growth.
A physical agent that has reduced the growth of microbes by targeting the process metabolism is heat. Heat is performed in the form of moist heat and dry heat. Moist heat could be in the form of stem under pressure, non pressurized steam, boiling, and pasteurization. Moist heat is effective in low temperatures that range from 121-134° C. These temperatures require short exposure to heat from 3-15 minutes. During the process of moist heat, microbial metabolism is discontinued as proteins are denatured by the exposure to heat. In the process of dry heat, microbial control requires higher temperatures that range from 121-170° C. The amount of time necessary in order for dry heat to be successful is from 1-10 hours. As dry heat takes place, metabolism is disrupted by the removal of water. Microbial control is successful as proteins continue to alter their structure, and cells become dehydrated by the lack of water. According to Talaro (2009), when the temperatures are increased dry heat oxidizes cells, burning them to ashes. Therefore, heat is an effective process of microbial control, because it effects metabolism by dehydrating cells and altering protein structure.
Radiation is another physical method that is used as a microbial control agent. Radiation is presented to cells as ionizing and non ionizing by how deeply it penetrates the cell’s DNA. Ionizing radiation is used as a sterilizing process of meats, medical instruments, and vaccines that must be sterilized before use. By the process of ionizing radiation, the DNA of a possible bacteria, virus, endospore is eliminated. The metabolic process would not have been able to function properly, if DNA was not present. With mutations in the DNA, protein synthesis would be altered greatly, and chemical reactions would be effected as well. Damage to protein synthesis stops the function of the cell by not allowing it to produce ATP. The process of sterilization by ionizing radiation are high penetrating, great in speed, but are only used if materials are sensitive to heat or...