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Importance Of Fungi And Their Use In Genomics

2553 words - 10 pages

With reference to named examples, discuss the use of genomics in understanding the pathogenesis and detection of human fungal infections.1 Introduction1.1 History of fungal genomics:The thallophytic plant offshoot, the fungus is known to be one of the pathogenic species that cause infection in humans. Progress on fungal genomes has been particularly limited at present, with only recent developments made for instance in 1996 the work published on the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Goffeau et al. 1996).As a result the dawn of a new genre in human disease has blossomed. Related by Lee et al (Lee et al. 2002), this supposedly was the first dramatic large-scale study on the eukaryotic fungal diseases. This warming investigation led the way to genomics as now many researchers have mimicked Goffeau et al and have plowed out genes of fungi and their functions in pathogenesis, and human fungal infections (Jorgensen et al. 2002).Scientists working on human genes have now a broader understanding in the connection of gene function and pathogenesis, as there is many bodies geared into action and have advanced in fungal research. Once such include MIPS - Munich information center for protein sequences. Where their services include online genome databases that show the study of all of the nucleotide sequences, including structural genes of fungal genomes (Andreoli C et al 2004 - from MIPS website).Genome sequence from these established fungi will aid our understanding of the eukaryotic proteome and ultimately help to detect and manipulate fungi for our own purposes, especially for treatment from the development of disease. Nonetheless a growing concern is on the lack of enhancement in this area as fungal genome sequence can provide the keys to underlining the basis of fungal interaction and human medicine.1.2 Introduction to Fungi:It roared itself like a wild beat spreading and infecting humans like wild fire. The emergence of newly identified fungal pathogens and the reemergence of diseases is now the discussion on many contemplative minds (1). A fungus is an organism that lacks chlorophyll and thus is unable to photosynthesize. Consequently requiring an external energy containing a carbon compound. As a result they live on dead and decaying matter and are referred to as saprophytes (saprobe). They can also be parasites, either obligate (live in humans) or facultative, where they dwell in the absence of a host but can also savagely infect human hosts {infection and immunity book page 169}.Examples of such pathogens are Candida Albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both of which are facultative parasite (4) also called protozoan parasite by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2). You have both good and bad fungi where mycology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi pathogenesis. In summary I have devised a table that sums up all the basic characteristics of fungi in table 1:Table 1: Characteristics of fungi:FungiThere are good ones and...

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