Biotechnology is a group of technologies that work together with living cells and their molecules to prolong life (Keener and Hoban et al., 2014). Today biotechnology can be used in a variety of ways such as in an industrial setting where they use it to create enzymes to synthesize chemicals, in an environmental setting where they use it for waste and pollution prevention and lastly it can be used in medical applications such as in pharmaceuticals, genetic engineering, DNA fingerprinting and in lastly it can be used in stem cell therapy (Keener and Hoban et al., 2014). Everyone in today’s society depends and uses biotechnology in one form or another, biotechnology is essential for our health and wellbeing.
Vaccines are also manufactured by using biotechnology in which consist of three main ways, it aids scientists to separate pure antigen using specific monoclonal antibody, aids in synthesis of an antigen with the help of a cloned gene and lastly it also aids in the synthesis of peptides to be used as vaccines (Alam 2014). A vaccine can protect you from specific diseases that can make you very sick or even kill you.
Vaccines boost your immune system by helping the body to create antibodies for a specific disease so that next time when a real infection comes along your body is prepared for the infection which in turn aids in antibody resistance. Biotechnology has provided tools for understanding virulence which is the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease (virulence meaning: Collins English Dictionary 2014) and how microbial immunogens function and secondly it offers new ways for creating vaccines (Fields and Chanock, 1989).
Vaccines were first invented by Edward Jenner in 1796 to protect against smallpox, which involved taking material from a blister from a person who was infected with cowpox and then injecting it into another person’s skin (iaff.org, 2014). This significant event made a major impact on society, in 1976 two to three million people had died from smallpox and as early as 1961 biotechnology was being developed to save lives, improve wellbeing and health of people around the world (iaff.org, 2014).
According to De Veer and Meeusen (2011) as biotechnology developed it allowed the production and use of more specified and safer pathogen structures such as vaccines, a few examples of which include viruses that cause influenza, hepatitis B vaccine, herpes vaccine and lastly rotavirus vaccines which are produced by artificial reassigning or mixing of the genetic material of different viruses. The recent development of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine combined genetic technology to produce recombinant HPV coat proteins with nanotechnology that aided in increasing antigenicity (De Veer and Meeusen, 2011).
According to the World Health Organization vaccinations save an estimated 2.5 million lives every year from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), and measles (Bio.org.2007). Biotechnology has also aided...