In Politics Essay

1245 words - 5 pages

B. general characteristics of subsequent evolution1. congress generally dominant over presidency until 20th centurya. exceptions: A. Jackson, A. Lincoln, T. Roosevelt, and W. Wilson2. major political struggles where in congressa. issues of national significance, e.g. slavery, admission of new state's, internal improvements, tariffs, business regulationb. conflict over distribution of power in congress(1) centralization if quick and decisive action needs(2) decentralization if members and constituency interests are dominant(3) general trend in 20th century toward decentralizationC. Phase one: the powerful house of rep.1. by early 1800s house asserts dominance; originated most legislation, nominated presidential candidates, speaker of house becomes powerful2. party caucuses shaped policy questions, selection of party candidate for presidency made presidents quite sensitive to congressional desiresD. Phase 2: A divided house1. assertiveness of A. Jackson, vetoed bills he didn't like2. caucus system for picking president candidate disappears, replaces with national nominating conventions.3. issue of slavery and civil war shatter party unity, limiting speaker's power4. radical republicans impose harsh measures on post civil war south and voted to impeach president JohnsonE. phase 3: rise of a powerful speaker1. end of 19th century speaker gains broad powersa. selected chairmen and members of all committees rewarded friends and punished enemies.b. chaired rules committeec. decided what bills would come up for vote and what limitations on debate would bed. decided who could speak on floor of houseF. phase 4: revolt against the speaker1. early 20th century speaker stripped of power to appoint committee members and chairmen, membership on powerful rules committee taken away.2. power cost by speaker emerged in other places.a. party caucus; leader influential and respected reasserted a party unityb. rules committee, decided what bill came up for vote and in what order, set restrictions on length of debate and members ability to offer amendments to billsc. committee chairmen (chosen by seniority) decide what business committee would address, what bills would be sent out of committee for house. Vote major influence on wording of bills.G. Phase 5: Empowerment of individual members1. issue causing change in 1960s was civil rightsa. powerful southern committee chairs blocked southern committee chairs blocked legislation until 19652. democratic majority changed notes to limit committee chairs powera. committee chairs become elective, not based on seniorityb. chairs couldn't convene committee meetings most meetings to be publicc. individual members become more powerful(1) any member could introduce legislation(2) halfway of majority party members chaired committees or subcommittees.(3) old style committee chairmen couldn't block legislation any longerH. Phase 6: return of leadership1. efforts began in late 1970s to restore speakers powera. given power to assign...

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