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In Vitro Propagation And Assessment Of Clonal Fidelity Of Dendrobium Aphyllum

1609 words - 6 pages

Orchids belong to the family Orchidaceae one of the largest and most diverse groups among angiosperms. According to one estimate, the family Orchidaceae includes 800 genera and 25,000 species (Stewart and Griffiths 1995). These plants are outstanding in many ways as they have diverse shapes, forms and colors. However, due to heavy rate of deforestation and other anthropogenic pressures the natural populations of many splendid orchids are depleting fast from their natural habitats at an alarming rate and their conservation is becoming a matter of global concern. Presently, all the orchid species are indexed in the Red Data Book of International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resouces (IUCN). Also, the family Orchidaceae is now included in Appendix-II of Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (Senthilkumar 2001).
The use medicinal use of orchids in treatment of disorders and ailments dates back many centuries and was reported by the Chinese (Bulpitt 2005). The Chinese pharmacopoeia, “The Sang Nung Pen Tsao Ching’’, illustrated Dendrobium as a source of tonic, astringent, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory compounds as far back as 200 BC and since vedic times (Singh and Tiwari 2007). Orchids are used in traditional medicine as they are rich in active compounds including several alkaloids (Okamoto et al. 1966; Lawler and Slaytor 1969; Elander et al. 1973; Nurhayati et al. 2009). Being one of the main constituents of “Herba Dendrobii”, Dendrobium aphyllum deserves special mention. The phenolic constituents of D. aphyllum comprised nine bibenzyls and two benzylethanyl compounds of which moscatilin and moscatin are also present (Ng et al. 2012). The paste of D. aphyllum is used in the treatment of organ deformities (Hossain 2009). Apart from its medicinal use, its flowers are also very attractive. Thus as this orchid is having a broad spectrum usage, it’s subjected to overexploitation and the wild populations of this splendid orchid is vanishing at an alarming rate. To prevent this beautiful orchid from extinction, it is necessary to propagate and reintroduce them in natural habitats.
Conventionally, Dendrobes are propagated propagated through cuttings, separation of offshoots and keikis produced from the old stems but only a few plants are formed after 2–3 years. But in the present scenario, where the habitats of these orchids are under severe threat, conventional propagation methodologies will not be able to cater the present issues. Tissue culture techniques using various explants have been widely used for in vitro mass propagation of several commercially important orchids over the past few decades (Dohling et al. 2012). In D. aphyllum the reports of in-vitro propagation are very less (Nayak et al. 1997; Talukdar 2001; Hossain et al. 2012). Moreover, only shoot bud production from nodal explant culture has been reported in this species. For large scale propagation a simple, economical,...

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