This investigation will assess the extent of resistance of Incan civilization and the effects on the spread of Spanish culture and religion after the successful Spanish conquest, after 1532. Research in the Incan religion and culture cannot come from primary sources (the Incans), as most of the known information on the Incan comes from two sources, the records from foreigners, pre-conquest, and archeology found. To achieve this, sources containing information on religion and culture include: Religion and empire: the dynamics of Aztec and Inca expansionism by Geoffrey Conrad and Historia de los Incas by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa. To assess resistance within Incan society, retaliation and preservation of culture and religion, including the significant of transculturation will be researched through the journal article, Becoming Saraguro: Ethnogenesis in the Context of Inca and Spanish Colonialism by Dennis Ogburn.
The Incan Civilization can be linked to having origins dating back to the 13th century. The origin of the Incan civilization is mostly learnt from the drawings and folklore the Incans created, which foreigners would later discover. According to legend, the founder of the Incan civilization, Manco Cápac, traveled to the valley of Cusco with his Golden Magical staff and, with directions from the Sun God, “threw his golden staff into the Cusco earth, and when the staff disappeared, suggesting the land's fertility, he founded his city”. (Gamboa p.24) The son of Manco, Sinchi Roca, was the successor to the Incan throne and became the second emperor of the Incan Empire. In 1350, during the reign of Roca, the Incan established their first archeological feat as they built a bridge on the Apurimac River. In effort to control the river, the Incan fought off the surrounding tribes, including the Chancas and the Soras.
The first significant date, 1438, is important as it becomes the beginning of the watermark years for the Incan Civilization. The famous ruler, Pachacuti (1438-1471), or as he would be referred to, “earth shaker” was the first to begin the great expansion the Incan Empire. Pachacuti, would come to power after successfully defending and destroying the neighboring power tribe, Chancas. “In the years of his rule, he would establish a centralized location, add to the architecture of Cusco, establish a food storage system and expand the empire to Lake Titicaca, which is now in Boliva, then east to the Pacific Ocean and north to present-day Ecuador.”(PBS) Pachacuti also established the official language of the Incans, Quechua, in effort to bring together the vast territories captured.
The successor of Pachacuti was his son, Huayna Capac. Capac was the last to expand the Incan empire, as he expanded into, the now countries of Ecuador and Colombia. In 1527, the Incan Empire reached its peak, as it controlled land stretching from present-day Ecuador to Chile. Before the Death of Huayna, the ruler of the Incas spilt the...