The non-lethal, lethal agents
The CDC has labeled Incapacitating agents as “Drugs that make people unable to think clearly or that cause an altered state of consciousness (possibly unconsciousness).” (CDC, 2013) So an in other words, an incapacitating agent is a drug that hinders a person’s ability to think with an unaltered mind.
From a military aspect, an incapacitating agent is a nonlethal way of rendering an enemy force useless without using any type or form of lethal action. An Incapacitating agent is something that affects an individual’s Central Nervous System (CNS). These agents come in four different forms - Deliriants, which is a form of delirium, so the individual who comes into contact with this agent will become confused and or disoriented to such an extent as to not be able to think clearly. One popular form of deliriant is called 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate or (BZ) for short. One reason why this product was so effective was because it could be used in such a low dosage while other agents have to be used in larger quantities (Cost effective).
Another category is stimulants, which causes the person effected to become very hyper-active and/or jittery. There is a wide range of stimulants that can be used as an agent from amphetamines, cocaine, to nicotine. The issues with using any type of stimulant is making it an aerosol and individuals who are on stimulants tend to be more aggressive and agitated than passive.
Depressants can be used as an incapacitating agent; these agents slow down and abate bodily functions and activities. When an individual is under the influence of a depressant then their motivation, their drive, and their will is diminished and altered. Some well known depressants used are: Cannabinols, Phenothiazine, and Fentanyls. Fentanyl was used on 27 October 2002 in a hostage takeover in a Moscow theatre; this will be discussed later on.
Psychedelics yield abnormal psychological effects that simulate a person with mental illness. Some well know drugs that have psychedelic effects are D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), ecstasy, and phencyclidine (PCP). Through military testing, these agents or drugs have been deemed inadequate for military usage (more to follow on military testing below) (United States. Army. United States. Marine Corps. United States. Navy. United States. Air Force, 2005).
Incapacitating agents have been around for centuries. The Unites States Military are not the first to start testing these agents for military usage. It has been recorded that in Solon, sometime around 600 B.C. threw hellebore roots into waterways that supported enemy troops with water. His actions cause the enemy to be overcome by digestive distress. Then around 184 B.C. Hannibal did the same thing using belladonna plants. The Belladonna plant causes disorientation. Dating back to World War II, the United State government tested the possibility of using incapacitating agents on enemy...