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Inclusion Education Policies For Special Needs

2799 words - 12 pages

Running head: INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR OR AGAINSTInclusive Education Practices Information BookletChris WareAbstractPart 1. An analysis of Inclusion Education Policies.This paper is the first part of a Booklet. It is aimed at academics, teachers and allied health professionals. This essay endeavors to discuss current and past principles of Inclusion education practices and assess just how effective they are towards providing education for all individuals.Inclusive Education Practices Information BookletInclusion policies and their influence on education facilitation are determined by identifying the arguments for and against Inclusive Education. This involves assessing and substantiating ...view middle of the document...

The second component is the examination of the macro components of Inclusive education practice as established by Cole (1999). Norlander (1995) defines the first development towards Inclusive Education as the Institutionalization and School segregation mid 1970s. Institutionalization was the process in which the first teaching of individuals with special needs occurred established by the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens (PARC). The second development he describes as the deinstutionalization of Schooling and the development of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) creating nationalized equal educational opportunities for all individuals with disabilities. The third development is described as the era of Community Integration, where special needs individuals were integrated into the community depending on ability. Evidence of this was legally formulated by the creation of the Americans with disabilities Act (1986). Historically, these three developments in the treatment and education of individuals with special needs in America lead to basis of current Australian Inclusion education policies. The effectiveness of current policies is assessed by the influences of macro and micro environmental characteristics.On the macro level, Cole (1999) describes four arguments for and against inclusion, the Consequentialist, Justice, Needs and Rights arguments. The first two will be discussed. The Consequentialist argument is based on the cost-benefit analysis and the Unitarian approach. This defined by Cole as a process where education polices are assessed on aggregate maximum benefit for the majority of persons involved in education. Consequentialist theorists for Inclusion propose that the philosophy and practice of inclusion promotes increases in student learning, less dependency on the government on resources for regular school education, and propose that individuals against inclusive education policies are lessening the provision of quality education.Individuals opposing the theory of Consequentialism believe the success of Inclusive education practices are heavily dependent on education budget surpluses, which when non-existent, lead to the deprivation of education quality, position and places (Cole, 1999). Similarly, Hunt, Soto, Maier, and Doering (2003) support this reasoning. They argue that termination of Inclusion policies such as separate facilities leads to no increase in resources for regular classes and no resultant benefits to students with disabilities.The second macro environment component is the influence and application of the concept of Justice. Cole (1999) suggests the application of Justice in education is based on equality, and equity of the distribution of education goods and services. Bracken and Samprecht (2003) propose the Justice modal of thinking promotes the application of common education principles. They suggest that it signifies standardised access for all students by the creation of policies with greater...

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