Incorporating Congestion Control In Bgp Considering Its Economic & Policy Effects

1375 words - 6 pages

I. Research Question and Problem Setting
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is responsible for communication between different Autonomous Systems (AS). The Internet is comprised of a large number of Autonomous Systems (AS) and exchanging routing information between two or more AS is achieved using BGP. Inter-domain routing in the Internet is carried out majorly by one protocol – Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). BGP is a distance-vector protocol and uses TCP as its underlying mechanism.
BGP peers are the routers running BGP that exchange routing information directly with each other. Two BGP peers communicate with each other via a BGP session. It is important for the BGP sessions to be reliable and scalable to provide high-quality Internet data communication. At present, the Internet lacks a differentiation mechanism in packet forwarding making BGP sessions sensitive to network congestion. Thus, it is important to understand the reliability of BGP in congested networks, for the purposes of evaluating system stability and avoiding system failure [1].
BGP forwards packets based on its best path. The current BGP routing table does not include an alternate path in it. If there is only one best path, and if that best path becomes congested, current BGPv4 still forwards packets using that best path. This does not improve the congestion scenario along the best path. It not only leads to the packets being dropped and re-sent again and again, it also leads to a large amount of delay which eventually affects the customer. To avoid delays and congestion on BGP paths, alternate paths are fed into the routing table for each destination.
Also, it does not have an inherent mechanism to avoid or detect traffic congested areas. This causes large delays and throughput problems in the Internet when the traffic is at its peak. A BGP router is not aware of multiple paths to reach a destination at any given point of time [Hsu & Shieh, 2011]. In case of congestion at the next hop of a route, the BGP router will still forward packets to that next congested router, resulting in further congestion. This limitation of BGP can be overcome by installing multiple paths in the routing table, as well as including congestion sensing mechanisms into the protocol [Hsu & Shieh, 2011 Gao & Wang, 2009].
The AS_PATH attribute in BGP defines the number of AS hops required to reach the destination. This attribute is responsible for selecting the best path to reach a certain prefix. The BGP mechanism allows the BGP router to remember the last best path it took to reach the prefix, but it has no inclusion in the routing table. It does not have a mechanism to detect or avoid traffic congested areas. {In order to reduce the failure possibility of BGP sessions and also prevent the failure from happening, it is essential to identify the quantitative conditions that causes the BGP session to fail.} [1]
This study proposes integrating congestion control mechanism in BGP, which helps solving...

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