According to the U.S Department of Health and Human Services, there are 15,600 new cases of Type I Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) each year (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Boys and girls are at relatively equal risks for developing T1DM up until fourteen years old, with risks peaking around puberty. Following puberty, incidences tend to be higher in white males than women (Soltesz, Patterson, & Dahlquist, 2007). When looking globally by region at incidences, they tend to be higher in European countries, such as Finland, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. This could be related to the genetic susceptibility people in these areas carry around, such as a certain gene associated with the autoimmune response of T1DM (Soltesz et al., 2007). Currently there are 215,000 children under the age of 20 that are living with T1DM, which also translates to 11.3% of this population (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Children diagnosed with T1DM are seven times more likely to die than those without the disease. The average lifespan of someone with T1DM is 28-43 years of age (Secrest, Becker, Kelsey, LaPorte, & Orchard, 2010). Deaths related to diabetes are often caused by long-term consequences of un-controlled blood sugar and are often under-reported as diabetes-linked deaths (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Some common consequences of uncontrolled blood glucose include: blindness or retinopathy, kidney disease, and nervous system damage (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Medical costs for diabetic patients are 2.3 times higher than those without the disease and accounted for $116 billion total in 2007. Aside from that, indirect medical costs related to diabetes were an additional $58 million dollars (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Socioeconomic status has little effects on the prevalence of T1DM, however shows a profound effect on Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), as ethnic minorities tend to have a higher prevalence of T2DM (Chow, Foster, Gonzalez, & McIver, 2012).
The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review related to nursing care management strategies used to increase coping and self-efficacy of parents with children diagnosed with Type I Diabetes Mellitus.
The nursing outcome for this purpose is to increase adherence to T1DM regimens in adolescents. This outcome is clinical, quality, and cost-related. By increasing the parent’s and child’s coping skills, knowledge, and resources, you are increasing the chances that they will adhere to their regimen. In doing so, you are decreasing incidences of hyperglycemia, therefore decreasing hospitalizations and medical costs. Aside from that, you are increasing the patient’s quality of life by lowering incidences of negative outcomes associated with not sticking to their regimen. In order to increase adherence to T1DM regimens long-term, nurses need to utilize a variety of...