I. Introduction India, country in southern Asia, south of Afghanistan and east of Pakistan. Including the portion of Jammu and Kashmir administered by India but disputed by Pakistan, India has an area of 1,222,243 sq miles . The capital is New Delhi , and the largest city is Mumbai (formerly Bombay).
II. Land and Resources India may be divided into four main regions. The Himalayas, the highest mountain system in the world, lie along India's northern and eastern margins. (This region includes Jammu and Kashmir, a territory disputed between India, Pakistan, and China. India controls most of the territory, but China has occupied the northeastern part of the state since 1962. Pakistan occupies the northwest portion of the territory.) South of them is the northern river-plains region, a belt of lowlands watered by the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers. Further south is the Deccan, a plateau occupying most of peninsular India, with low mountain ranges and deep valleys. The final region consists of the Eastern and Western Ghats, mountain ranges that lie on the east and west, respectively, of the Deccan Plateau.
Most of India has a tropical climate. Seasonal variations, resulting from the southwestern and northeastern monsoons, influence temperature, humidity, and precipitation. The seasons are classified as rainy and dry.
In addition to extensive cultivable land and valuable stands of timber, India has many mineral deposits. The plant life varies from sparse in the arid areas bordering Pakistan to luxuriant in the southeastern part of the plains region. Arctic plants grow at high elevations, and the lower elevations support subtropical plant life and are densely forested. India has a wide variety of animal life, from many types of large cats such as tigers, to elephants and rhinoceroses, and several species of apes, antelope, and deer.
III. Population The exact origins of most Indian people are impossible to determine because of the large variety of races and cultures that have been assimilated into the subcontinent. India ranks as the second most populous country in the world, trailing...