India and the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations
Aishwarya V. Nair, 070701111
Submitted to: Dr. Arvind Kumar, Professor of Geopolitics and International Relations
Introduction to the Concept of United Nations PeacekeepingUnited Nations Peacekeeping is exclusive and vigorous instruments developed by the United Nations Organisation as a way to help countries torn by conflict create the conditions for lasting peace. The first UN peacekeeping operation was established in 1948, when the Security Council authorised the deployment of the UN military observers to the Middle East to monitor the Armistice Agreement between Israel and its Arab neighbours. Since then there have been many peacekeeping operations around the world.The term peacekeeping is not found in the UN Charter and it challenges simple meaning. It was first used by Dag Hammarskjold, the second UN Secretary General. He referred it to belonging to 'Chapter six and half' of the Charter, placing it between traditional methods of resolving disputes peacefully, such as negotiation and mediation and more forceful action, accredited under Chapter seven. Since then, the UN peacekeeping has evolved to meet the demands of different national and political conflicts. Established during the Cold War era, the main objectives of the UN peacekeeping force was to monitor, and restricted to ceasefires, and steadying efforts on the ground, so that ways could be found to resolve the issue at political level itself, without any violence. The mission consisted of military observers and light-armed troops.With the end of Cold War, the considered framework of the UN peacekeeping vividly changed, forcing the Organisation to change and enlarge its field operations from missions involving firmly military tasks to multifaceted enterprises structured for the purpose of implementing comprehensive peace agreements and assist in laying foundations for workable peace. Today peacekeepers carry out a wide range of difficult tasks, like helping to build viable establishments of authority, human rights monitoring, security sector reform, disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of former combatants.The achievements of UN peacekeeping in the Cold War period, although modest, were real. They included the effective freezing of certain conflicts; some lessening of the risk or extent, of competitive intrusions of neighbouring or major powers; and the separation of some local conflicts from the East-West struggle, so that the local conflicts did not intensify the Cold War.Over the years, the nature and form of conflict has also changed. Initially developed as a way to resolve conflicts and disputes between the states, the UN has now been increasingly resolve issues and civil wars at the intra-state level. Even though, military is the main instrument in the UN peacekeeping force, administrators, economists, police officers, legal experts, de-miners, electoral observers, human rights monitors, humanitarian...