Income, growth and prosperity were accepted as key indicators of progress and development till the first half of the twentieth century. This was a preoccupation of classical economists. But in present century there is a great conflict, which relates development with equality, growth without equitable distribution and prosperity alongside rising gender inequalities. None of which are natural but rather influenced by social and cultural factors. There is need to broaden the concept of development to encompass the overall well-being of people rather than just denoting rising income. The national income as calculated by the Gross National Product (GNP) measure is no indication of the standard of ...view middle of the document...
It must also address crime, poverty, unemployment, environmental sustainability, women empowerment and so on.
That is why in 1996 the ‘Development Assistance Committee’ of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Goals that stimulated a lot of interest pushed by some extremely dedicated individuals. Declaration introduced in the first UN Millennium Summit in September 2000 attracted the largest number of the world leaders in the history. The UN Millennium Summit proposes eight essential objectives; referred to as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Thus for the first time in our history of development, a set of well-defined goals, understandable to all, was adopted jointly by the world communities.
The present chapter has been divided in to five Sections. Section I briefly describes the origin of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and list of MDGs, its targets and indicators. A brief description of Millennium Development Goals in India has been provided in section II. Need of the study and its objectives have been given in section III. Section IV discusses the data availability for measuring the indicators of MDG in Indian context, methodology, tools and technique in used in the study. Limitations and the chapterization scheme have been provided in the last section.
1.2 The Millennium Development Goals
At the end of the century, leaders from different countries recommended a world in which developed and developing countries worked in partnership for the betterment of all. A world with less poverty, hunger and disease, greater survival outlooks for mothers and their infants, better educated children, equal opportunities for women, and a healthier environment are main issues of this gathering. This idea created the shape of eight Millennium Development Goals. This dream provides the countries around the world a framework for development and time-bound targets by which progress can be measured. 189 country heads across the world gathered in New York in September 2000 and signed the Millennium Declaration.
To meet the objectives of the declaration, governments signed up to a set of international goals, aiming to reach by 2015. These were named the 'Millennium Development Goals' (MDGs). These eight Millennium Development Goals...