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Indigenous Treatment Of Disease Essay

843 words - 3 pages

Introduction: Overview of Soil Mechanics
1
A. What is "soil"?
1) Not "dirt"! 2) Soil is unconsolidated earthen material comprised of discrete mineral grains and decayed organic matter, along with inter− stitial gases and liquids.
−> If the grains are "permanently" bonded or cemented together, the material is called "rock" or "stone".
3) Soils tend to be fairly complex and heterogeneous materials which feature a wide range of mechanical behaviors.
−> Understanding and describing the behavior of soils is the challenge being addressed in this course!
4) In general, 3 phases comprise soil: −> solid: the soil grains −> fluid: the pore fluid (typically water) −> gas : the pore gas (typically air)
53:030 Soil Mechanics Notes; C.C. Swan, University of Iowa

a)When individual soil grains are loosely bonded together, they form a "structure" or "skeleton" which can transmit loads via contact between particles.
b) When loads are applied to the soil skeleton, deformations occur. −> Typically, 95−100% of the total deformation is caused by relative motion, or sliding, of individual soil grains.
−> The remaining 0−5% of the overall soil deformation is typically caused by deformation of the individual soil grains.
5) There are many different types of soils, and the difference lies primarily in the size of the grains and the nature of the bonding between them. (See table on the following page) −> We will learn how the difference between grain sizes and types of inter−grain bonding can explain many of the mechanical soil behaviors that we will observe.
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53:030 Soil Mechanics Notes; C.C. Swan, University of Iowa
individual soil grain{soil skeleton

3
Main Classes of Soils Soil Type Type of Grains Predominant Size Intergrain Bonding
Gravels
Sands
Silts
Clays
quartz, feldspars, rounded and/or angular
same as above
primarily quartz flake−like grains
micah, kaolinite, bentonite, etc. very small plate− like grains
2mm < D < 76mm
.075mm < D < 2mm
2µm < D < 2mm
D < 2µm
Frictional
Frictional & chemical
Frictional, chemical, electrical
Chemical & electrical
53:030 Soil Mechanics Notes; C.C. Swan, University of Iowa
Note: D = grain size or diameter

B. What is "soil mechanics"?
−> Soil mechanics is the study of the both the solid and fluid mechanical characteristics of soils.
−> Solid Mechanics Issues:
• How much will soil deform when it is loaded? • When loads are applied, on what time scale does soil deform? • How much load can we apply to soil before it fails? • How does soil "fail"?
−> Fluid Mechanics Issues:
• How does water flow through soil? (how fast?) • How can fluid flow through soil cause it to fail?
C. Why do we, as engineers, study "soil mechanics"?
In brief, because all branches of civil engineering require an understanding of soil and how it behaves.
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