Herman Brain Dominance (HBD): Ned Hermann improved his model of Brain Dominance in 1979. His Whole Brain Model (Herman, 1995) combines Roger Sperry's left/right brain theory and Paul MacLean's triune model (primitive, intermediate and rational brain) to produce a quadrant model based on the task- specific performance of the physical brain. Each quadrant is described to have an ideal style of learning and preferences for individual types of learning behavior. Quadrant A is logical-analytical, Quadrant B is sequential-organized, and Quadrant C is emotional and interpersonal, while Quadrant D is visual, holistic and innovative. Depending on the relative functioning of these quadrants, he classifies individuals as humanists, theorists, organizers and innovators. In this context, it has been found that individuals with ADHD are right-brain dominant in their information processing and learning styles, resulting in being more creative than those with left-brain dominant styles (Jensen, 1998).
These two models focus on characterizing learners. There has been much further work in characterizing the Cognitive Styles of different learners, such as the work of Furnham (1995) and Ramsden (1992) on Whole/Analytic organization and processing of information, and Verbal/Imagery representation of information. However, there is some debate about whether Cognitive Style should be considered part of Learning Style: “LS are more in terms of processes than outcomes” (Duff, 2003, pp.5). Sadler-Smith (2001) also brings out in their discussion that Cognitive Style and LS are independent.
Dunn and Dunn: Dunn, Dunn and Price (1979) identified the factors that influence learners in terms of five types of stimuli: Environmental, Emotional, Sociological, Physiological, and Psychological. For each, they identified specific elements:
“Environmental" includes: light, sound, temperature, and room design.
"Emotional" includes: structured planning, persistence, motivation, and responsibility.
"Sociological" includes: pairs, peers, adults, self, group, and varied.
"Physical" includes: perceptual strengths, mobility, intake, and time of day.
"Psychological" includes: global/analytic, impulsive/reflective, and right- or left-brain dominance.
The model states that for most individuals, four or five of the elements become extremely important when attempting to learn new or difficult information. To improve an individual’s learning, instructional design should cater to the specific elements that most impact their learning.
Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model: One of the most popular and influential LS models is Kolb’s “experiential learning” model (Kolb, 1984). Kolb describes learning as a four step spiral process, consisting of concrete experiences (CE), reflective observations (RO), abstract conceptualizations (AC), and active experimentation (AE). Learners have concrete experiences. They reflect on these experiences from different perspectives. From...