Cultural dimensions are developed by the Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede. The framework aims for a better understanding of cultures and the values and behavior of its members. The theory is based on large surveys within IBM in the 1970s and studies how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. Hofstede found clear patterns of similarity with people from the same country and differences between different countries which can be arranged in following dimensions:
Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)
This refers to the strength of the ties people have to others within the community. People in individualist cultures focus primarily on themselves and ...view middle of the document...
Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)
This dimension explains a society's comfort with unstructured environments and if people avoid unknown situations where surprising events may occur. Cultures with a high UAI have rigid codes of belief and behavior either written or unwritten. People tend to act as expected and follow the rules and the chain of command. In cultures with a low UAI people are comfortable with less rules and structure and encourage flexibility and problem-solving. As this dimension varies not only depending on culture but also personally, it is important to provide structure at a workplace to an extent the team members are happy with it.
Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)
Masculine cultural values are competition, ambition, power and material rewards. In this culture men are expected to be assertive and tough and to be the provider of the family income. Men’s work is distinct from women’s work. In feminine cultures people prefer cooperation, modesty and integration and generally care more for quality of life. Gender roles in work in low MAS cultures are not very distinct. Women and men are working together equally in many professions. In high MAS cultures the leaders are to expected to be man and act role-specific. In low MAS cultures you can find more gender diverse teams and women in leadership positions.
Long Term Orientation (LTO)
This fifth dimension was added to distinguish the difference in thinking...