Industria Electrónica Essay

2236 words - 9 pages

Industria electrónica argentina. Evolución y perspectivas Por Claudio Krämer
Es deber del Estado alentar la innovación en proyectos que resuelvan necesidades de la sociedad, y al
mismo tiempo incrementar el acervo tecnológico del país. Las restricciones a las importaciones impuestas este año por el gobierno nacional pueden ser el primer paso para cumplir este objetivo en el sector de la industria electrónica.
Ingeniero. Gerente de la Cámara Argentina de Industrias Electrónicas, Electromecánicas, Luminotécnicas, Telecomunicaciones, Informática y Control Automático (CADIEEL)
En la historia de la industria electrónica en la Argentina se pueden diferenciar cuatro etapas que reflejan un retroceso sistemático en cuanto a complejidad e integración.
Inicios
Entre 1950 y 1970, etapa de sustitución de importaciones, se comienza a desarrollar la industria electrónica nacional basada en el diseño y fabricación de bienes de consumo con alto grado de integración local. Se lograron importantes avances para controlar tecnologías de fabricación de dispositivos
semiconductores, tanto en el sector público (INTI, CITEFA, Laboratorio de Electrónica de la Facultad de Ingeniería, entre otros) como en el privado (Fate Electrónica). Hacia fines de la década de los '60 Fate, una empresa de neumáticos que buscaba nuevos campos de expansión, decidió desarrollar calculadoras electrónicas cuando aún no se hablaba de computadoras. Instalaron una planta que llamaron Cifra y produjeron una calculadora que en los '70 tuvo gran éxito. En esos años se logró generar una serie de conocimientos electrónicos que eran aun de avanzada en el panorama mundial. Para ilustrar la situación, en ese entonces Corea no tenía industria electrónica y ni siquiera pensaba en instalarla. En 1970 la Argentina tenía mucho más potencial técnico, económico y
empresarial, y capacidad de producir estos productos que Corea. Fate había fabricado la segunda calculadora electrónica portátil del mundo, después de Hewlett Packard.
Década de los '70 En 1976 cambió la política económica, se abrió el mercado permitiendo la irrupción masiva de calculadoras
y otros artículos importados. Hacia fines de la década de los '70 se abandonaron los esfuerzos para controlar tecnologías de fabricación de dispositivos semiconductores, lo que desembocó en la actual ausencia de capacidad productiva en esta materia.
En esta etapa de economía abierta adquirió relevancia económica el ensamble de partes importadas, al amparo del régimen de promoción de Tierra del Fuego con sus beneficios...

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