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Industrial And Organizational Psychology Essay

1154 words - 5 pages

Today there are many fields of psychology. Industrial/Organizational psychology is an exhilarating field that has been enjoying constant growth in the United States and throughout the modern world for almost 100 years. Understanding psychology can be a little difficult. This paper will discuss what industrial/organizational psychology is, the difference between industrial and organizational psychology, the importance research is, validity and reliability. Industrial/Organizational psychology is different from other psychologies.What is industrial/organizational psychology? Industrial/organizational psychology also known as I/O psychology is the study of an individual's behavior in the ...view middle of the document...

Organizational psychology is socialization, motivation, occupational stress, leadership, group performance, and organizational development. Although this is a different type of psychology, it still has research.Research is very significant concerning psychology. Research is the underpinning of both the practice and science of I/O. A company hires I/O psychologists to offer research skills so that when an employee asks questions concerning whether or not a program can be determined scientifically. This is imperative for evaluating the accomplishment of organizational practices such as training programs. Research is also essential for the expansion of innovative practices, such as measures for hiring people. I/O psychology is a science because the methods used to expand knowledge of organizational phenomena are scientific methods. This means that the I/O psychologist gathers data or information in a systematic way to address research questions of interest. (Spector, 2006)Every study begins with a research question. A hypothesis is the researcher's best speculation about what the outcome of a study will be. Rather than merely raising the question, the hypothesis is a theoretical answer. The hypothesis is a statement of the results that the researcher expects to find. Research studies are conducted to corroborate hypotheses. A variable is an attribute or characteristic of people that can vary. People's abilities, attitudes, behavior, and job performance are all universal variables in organizational research. Each subject's position on each variable is quantified so that statistical methods can be applied. Variables can be classified into one of two types. In experiments, independent variables are those manipulated by the researcher, while dependent variables are those that are assessed in response to the independent variables. (Spector, 2006)Measurement is the process of assigning numbers to characteristics of people or things. Variables in every study must be measured or quantified so that data analysis can be conducted to draw conclusions. According to classical measurement theory, every observation of a variable can be divided into two components: true score and error. The true score is assumed to represent the variable of interest. The error is comprised of random influences on the observed score independent of the true score. Because errors are random, they are as likely to deflate as inflate the observed values of the variable. (Spector, 2006)Reliability is the consistency of measurement across repeated observations of a variable on the same subject. In classical measurement theory terms, it...

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