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Industrial Case Study: The Production Of Iron And Steel An Analisis On Iron Production

1168 words - 5 pages

Industrial case studyThe production of iron and steelIntroduction: IRONIron is the most abundant metal and is believed to be the tenth most abundant element on earth. Iron is also the most abundant (by mass, 34.6%) element making up the earth. The concentration of iron is mainly found in the inner core to about 5% in the outer crust. Iron is a metal extracted from iron ore, and is hardly ever found in the free elemental state. In order to obtain elemental iron, the impurities must be removed by chemical reduction. Iron is also used in the production of steel. Steel is not an element but an alloy which is made up of different metals and some non-metals such as carbon.Iron is given the symbol Fe which is the short form for "Ferrum" the Latin word for iron. The nucleus of iron has the "highest binding energy per nucleon". This means that iron is the heaviest element that is produced through fusion (procedure of liquefying or melting of metals by heat) and the lightest through fission (A nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus splits into fragments). The melting point of iron is 1535°C and its boiling point is 2750°C. Pure iron is very rare due to the fact that it is chemically reactive and corrodes rapidly especially in moist air or at elevated temperatures. There are 4 commonly know isotopes of iron. Form A is known to be magnetic but when it is transformed into form B the magnetism disappears (but lattice remains unchanged.Iron ore Mining: AustraliaIron ore resource is found in every State and territory in Australia. Almost 90% of identified iron ore resources (about 31.5 billion tones) are found in Western Australia including about 80% in the Hamersley province. The major Australian iron ore mines are open cut mines but also there are some underground mines as well. Firstly before mining processes take place the natural vegetation is cleared by the help of CALM. Then bottom dump scoopers scrape the seed layer for rehabilitation purposes. From there the blasting and scraping of cap rock takes place. The exposed iron ore is then loaded on to haul trucks by front end loader. The ore is then hauled from working faces to crushing and screening plants. The ore is then transported to further treatment plants or refineries.This is the basic structure of a mining field Front end loaders load the iron ore in to haul trucks Haul trucks hauls the ore to crushers The ore is crushed The ore is then transported by conveyer belts to refineriesProducing ironFigure 1Figure 1 production of molten steelThe crushed Iron ore is brought to what is known as a sinter plant where sintering takes place. Sintering is a process in which solid wastes are combined into a porous mass that can then be added to the blast furnace and is usually carried out at iron and steelmaking centres. Sintering involves crushing limestone and coke which are put in coke ovens to produce carbon gases. Coke is a solid carbon fuel and carbon source used to...

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