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Industrial Revolution. Essay

3044 words - 12 pages

Obstacles to Industrialization1. lack of labour-95% of people worked on farms2. lack of food supply- farmers only made enough food for themselves3. fallow field system-1 of 3 fields would lie fallow for a year4. poor transport- between cities and possible industrial areas5. many countries had no common currency and no unified law code6. Aristocracy- were pro farms and usually anti-industrialization7. Guilds- constricted the economy and practiced Mercantilism-England started the Industrial Revolution bc:-they already had a common currency and unified law code and an aristocracy historically controlled by the King who was influenced strongly by the English Parliament-2 kinds of Aristocracy in England: 1.peerage-primogenture made it that only the eldest son got the fathers title and joined the peerage so 2. gentry-which was made up of younger noble sons and rich merchants were pro industr. and helped make England #1-they had a domestic system that hurt guilds because in it ppl. made products at home out of the guilds control and then the Coporation Act of 1835 outlawed guilds in England-Enclosure Movement tried to organize and consolidate little fields farmed by peasants into big fields run by yeomen-name for a successful farmer-Jethro Tull invented the seed drill which planted seeds in rows and not randomly and also invented the horse drawn plow-Charles Townshead invented the theory of crop rotation in farmingBeginnings of the Industrial Revolution:-textile was the major product made in England and cotton had to be 1. spun 2. woven-John Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733 which made weaving go much quicker-Charles Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny in 1760 which spun cotton 6x as fast-Richard Arkright invented the water frame which used water as a power source to spin cotton quickly-Samuel Crompton invented the Spinning Mule which combined the Spinning Jenny and the water frame in 1 production-Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom which used steam to weave cotton quickly-Savery invented a basic steam engine in 1702 to pump water out of a mine using steam-Thomas Newcomen in 1712 added a piston to Savery's pump-Watt in 1769 used steam on both sides and made the pump circular, pushed pistons up and down creating the steam engine-Fulton in 1807 invented the steamboat-Stevenson in 1814 invented the locomotive-Steam engines, made of non-flexible iron blew up a lot, so a stronger metal was needed-Charles Besemler used steam to make steel cheaply using the Besemler Process-bellows injected air into iron making the iron hotter so the carbon would separate from the iron producing steel-These inventions helped make the Factory System. Factories hired unskilled workers, women and children, so skilled workers lost jobs. a skilled worker could support a family on his salary but unskilled/factory workers couldn't.-Demographic changes in England-pop. change. by 1800 only 40% of ppl. lived by agriculture, down from 70%.-pop. growth was because...

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