Crash Course #32. World History: Coal, Steam, and the Industrial Revolution
Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750 to c. 1900
Key Concept 5.1 Industrialization and Global Capitalism
Industrialization fundamentally altered the production of goods around the world. It not only changed how goods were produced and consumed, as well as what was considered a “good,” but it also had far reaching effects on the global economy, social relations and culture. Although it is common to speak of an “Industrial Revolution,” the process of industrialization was a gradual one that unfolded over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, eventually becoming global.
I. Industrialization changed fundamentally how goods were produced.
A. A variety of factors led to the rise of industrial production:
· Europe’s location on the Atlantic ocean;
· the geographical distribution of coal, iron, and timber;
· European demographic changes; urbanization;
· improved agricultural productivity;
· legal protection of private property;
· an abundance of rivers and canals; access to foreign resources; and
· the accumulation of capital.
B. The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to exploit vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. The “fossil fuels” revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.
C. The development of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor.
D. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia and Japan.
E. The “second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the nineteenth century.
II. New patterns of global trade and production developed and further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories.
A. The need for raw materials for the factories and increased food supplies for growing population in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the world that specialized in mass producing single natural resources. The profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods.
EXAMPLES: cotton, rubber, palm oil, sugar, wheat, meat, guano, metals and minerals
B. The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally-based economies. EXAMPLES: textile production in India
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