Following the Congress of Vienna in 1814, change had to come about due to the amount of political instability of Europe. There was so much corruption, poor communication, and lack of trustworthy officials that something had to be done to make dramatic improvements to the European countries or it would ultimately be their demise. There was a concern that German university students would become a focus of political issues and had a feeling that they were secretly meeting to discuss politics, the economy, and potentially plotting to spread radical ideas.
With the evolution of industrialization in Europe, so came to be new inventions, a greater demand for capital, improvements in having efficient and reliable transportation, and the stimulation of economic growth. The lack of government cooperation ultimately led to such a drastic change coming about and even though they had started to come about in the 18th century, this was not a turning point and people capitalized on what had been started.
The people realized that with industrialization, it would require them to use raw materials like cheap iron and fuel efficiently to make machines. England already had an advantage over the other European countries because England was rich with coal and iron ore, of which they turned to at an increased rate. They cut down their forests digging deeper for coal and created machines, like the steam engine, to remove water and other machines that turned water into steam. Gradually the demand for iron and steel was on the rise and so did new techniques to get it and do things with it, like wrought iron, that John Wilkinson decided would be the main building material.
By 1820, there was increased production, especially in textiles, iron, and coal. Railroads were being built throughout England that allowed for increased industrialization across the country by allowing them to transport food, coal, iron, materials, and manufactured goods. By 1815, many other regions were following Britain’s example and making their own industrial advances. By the increase in innovation, it actually helped develop better international ties with the exchange of goods, capital, techniques, and even workers were exchanged between countries.
Industrialization involved politics because parliament or commissions had to be the deciders as to what was built where and how, with many railroads being not only planned by the state, but owned by them too. The spike led to the topic of tariffs in every country and Britain decided in 1846 to enforce the Corn Laws, an abolishment on the tariff of imported grain. This signified that the government was going to side with not the landowners that reaped the great rewards from the sales, but with those who favored trade and lower prices.
The political role in industrialization was just beginning there and government looked into banking and currency. This led to the concept of investing and the establishment of corporations and limited liability in...