This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Infectious Diseases And Antibiotic Resistance Essay

2337 words - 9 pages

© Sajad Bahram Yr 12: H.S.C Biology Assessment task 4
AL FAISAL COLLEGEH.S.C BIOLOGYASSESSMENT TASK 4RESEARCH TASKDUE DATE: Wednesday 2ND July 2008 Term 2 Week 10OUTCOMES ASSESSED: H3 H4 H8 H11 H12 H13 H14 H15 H16WEIGHTING: 25%CONTENTSPART 1: INFECTIOUS DISEASES p 2-3PART 2: PROBLEMS RELATING TO ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE p 4PART 3: CATARACTS AND CATARACT SURGERY p 5PART 4: COCHLEAR IMPLANTS p 6BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCE p 7-8PART 1: INFECTIOUS DISEASES- TUBERCULOSISCauses of TuberculosisTuberculosis is caused the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and spreads in microscopic droplets through coughs, talking, laughing, singing or sneezing. These bacteria were first identified in 1882 by Robert Koch who described their appearance under the microscope as rod-shaped germs or bacilli. Anyone of any age, race or nationality can contract TB, but certain factors increase your risk of the disease. Some of these factors include:Lowered Immunity.Close contact with someone with infectious TB.Nationality.Age.Substance Abuse.Malnutrition.Lack of medical care.International travel.Who is the HostMycobacterium tuberculosis is the pathogen agent of tuberculosis in humans. Humans are the only reservoir and host for the bacterium. Mycobacterium bovis is the pathogen agent of TB in cows and rarely in humans. Both cows and humans can serve as reservoirs. Humans can also be infected by the consumption of unpasteurised milk. This route of transmission can lead to the development of extrapulmonary TB, demonstrated in history by bone infections that led to hunched backs.Mode of TransmissionTuberculosis is spread through air droplets which are expelled when persons with infectious TB disease cough, sneeze, speak, or sing. The tuberculosis germ is carried on droplets in the air, and can enter the body through the airway. A person with active pulmonary tuberculosis can spread the disease by coughing or sneezing. The process of catching tuberculosis involves two stages: first, a person has to become infected; second, the infection has to progress to disease. To become infected, a person has to come in close contact with another person having active tuberculosis. In other words, the person has to breathe the same air in which the person with active disease coughs or sneezes.What are the SymptomsThe primary stage of the tuberculosis may be symptom-free, or the individual may experience a flu-like illness. In the secondary stage when the disease is active there might be a slight fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue and various other symptoms, depending on the part of the body affected. Tuberculosis of the lung is usually associated with a dry cough that eventually leads to a productive cough with blood-stained sputum. There might also be chest pain and shortness of breath.Host ResponseIt has only been recently that an understanding of the human host response in this infection has begun to emerge. The key components of this response are cytokines and components of...

Find Another Essay On Infectious Diseases and Antibiotic resistance

Gonorrhea and Antibiotic Resistance Essay

917 words - 4 pages Gonorrhea and Antibiotic Resistance Aspects to Ponder: What is gonorrhea? Describe the pathophysiology if this disease, include biochemical/cellular/histological alterations. How is this disease transmitted? What system does it affect? Can it lead to other disorders? What is pelvic inflammatory disease? What is epididymitis? What do you treat gonorrhea with and how does it work? Why is the number of gonorrhea cases going up? Is it due

natural disasters and infectious diseases Essay

762 words - 4 pages The focus of this paper will revolve around the areas of NATURAL DISASTERS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES and how they affect multilateralism in the Asia-Pacific region. Multilateralism as a whole in this region has been quite unique in its aspects, specifically within the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). This is because although states are willing and interested in part to send aid and relief products to other member states in times of

Controling Infectious and Contagious Diseases

1109 words - 4 pages The original inception of the public health discipline/field was to control infectious and contagious diseases within the population. Starting with Dr. John Snow in the late 1800s and moving forward, the control and/or eradication of disease has been a chief concern using primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention (UCLA, 2013). Large-scale projects such as widespread water fluoridation and the eradication of smallpox are chapters in the

Prophylactic Antibiotics and the Vreation of Superbugs and Antibiotic Resistant Diseases

3868 words - 15 pages antibiotic, also contributing to the overall progression of superbugs and the decrease of antibiotic integrity against certain diseases and contagions. In her article “Antibiotic Resistance” Cheryl Wetzstein states that “Antibiotic resistance is a problem that humans have created through the misuse and overuse of antibiotics.” The reasoning behind this is many people don’t understand how antibiotics work in their bodies. Antibiotics are used to treat

The History, Function, and Resistance Associated with Vancomycin, a Glycopeptide Antibiotic

2385 words - 10 pages treating resistant bacteria will have to be discovered. Works Cited (1) http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/antibiotic-use/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html (2) Moellering, Robert C. (2006). Vancomycin: A 50-Year Reassessment. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42(Supplement 1), S3-S4. (3) Griffith, Richard S. (1981). Introduction to Vancomycin. Review of Infectious Diseases, 3(Supplement 2), S200-S204. (4) http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00512

Antibiotic resistance awareness between public, antibiotics dispensing and prescribing patterns in Najaf, Iraq

789 words - 4 pages awareness about this challenge and increasing civil society pressure on politicians to adapt policy and prevention programs for a healthier future. 2 The aim of this paper was to investigate what people know about antibiotic resistance, how private pharmacies dispense antibiotics and further to explore prescribing patterns for selected infectious disease complaints for adults and children in two hospitals in Iraq. Materials and Methods: In order

Role of Metabolites in Diagnosing Chronic and Infectious Diseases and the Efficacy of Therapeutic Interventions

684 words - 3 pages These scenarios share the critical need to develop noninvasive, low cost techniques that can help make critical decisions that impact everything from health, quality of life, costs, and public health policy. There has been recent interest in understanding the role that metabolites may play in diagnosing chronic and infectious diseases and the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Since the metabolites represent the current state of the

Validation of the Parental Knowledge and Attitude Towards antibiotic Usage and Resistance among Children in Tetovo, Republic of Macedonia

2500 words - 10 pages patient-doctor interaction, patient satisfaction, and patients’ experience with antibiotics (Mitsi et al. 2005; Crossley et al. 2005). The rationale for educating the public is that knowledge about antibiotic treatment and awareness of antibiotic resistance are thought to influence patient and parent demand for antibiotic prescribing (Vanden Eng et al. 2003). Because of wide cross-national differences in antibiotic use (Deschepper et al. 2008

Validation of the Parental Knowledge and Attitude towards Antibiotic Usage and Resistance among Children in Tetovo, Republic of Macedonia

2179 words - 9 pages AThe aim of this questionnaire was to assess parental knowledge and attitudes on antibiotic use for their children. The findings have shown confusion among parents about the effectiveness of antibiotics for bacterial or viral infections. Among 500 parents involved in the study, 61.2% believes that antibiotic is a proper treatment for bacterial infections. The proportion found in our study was higher (37.5%) compared to the results reported by

The Importance of Science and Technology in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases in the Late 19th Century

1406 words - 6 pages The Importance of Science and Technology in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases in the Late 19th Century Infectious disease had posed problems for many people for centuries. The developed knowledge of anatomy and the working of the human body led to more and more understanding of what caused illness and diseases. Many scientists and doctors searched for cures and treatments and from the 18th century onwards there were

Blood-Borne and Infectious Diseases: Hepatitis C

3169 words - 13 pages prevent further transmission. Mariah did not fully understand the extent of her 'risky behaviour' due to a lack of education about infection control.Infection control is the process of minimising the risks of developing an infectious disease. To prevent exposure to hepatitis C, individuals should be aware and follow the guidelines of 'standard precautions'. Standard precautions are the practice where all blood and body fluids should be treated as

Similar Essays

Assessment: Infectious Diseases, Antibiotic Resistance, Cataracts

1311 words - 5 pages PART 1 INFECTIOUS DISEASES: TUBERCULOSIS(TB)CAUSES:Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by an infecting agent(pathogen). The pathogen that causes tuberculosis is in the form of rod-shaped bacteria and is known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.HOST:The tubercle bacillus affects the human host cell. The host-microbe intercation regarding tuberculosis is still unknown and is being researched at the moment.TRANSMISSION:The tuberculosis disease

Part 1 Infectious Diseas Es – Tinea Pedis. Part 2 Problems Relating To Antibiotic Resistance Part 3 Cataracts And Cataract Surgery. Part 4 Cochlear Implants

1970 words - 8 pages introduction of new antibiotics is needed that can be time costly. Additionally, new diseases can be developed, causing further difficulty in management of disease. (Antibiotic Resistance, 2008).What alternatives are there to treating people with antibiotics?A virus called Bacteriophages has the potential to infect and kill bacteria. Also they are no danger to human and animal cells, hence allowing them to be safely used as an alternative to treating

Antimicrobial Resistance, Resistant Nosocomial Pathogens And Molecular Diagnosis Of Emerging Infectious Diseases

1950 words - 8 pages aureus, which is now Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MRSA has ‘undergone rapid evolutionary changes and epidemiologic expansion to become resistant to vancomycin’ (Boucher et al, 2010), antimicrobial resistance decreases the effectiveness of treatment therefore patient stays infectious for a longer period of time with the possibility of infecting someone else. Among re-emerging infectious diseases, tuberculosis (TB) is the

Tuberculosis And Antibiotic Resistance Essay

1605 words - 7 pages drugs which has become a major contributing factor in the failure to control the spread of this disease. [3] Tuberculosis has been known to primarily affect the lungs, but can also strike organs of the central nervous system, lymphatic system, and circulatory system among others. Although tuberculosis has no true cure presently, antibiotic resistance can only be overcome by more extensive research of new types of drugs to further prevent this