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Infectious Diseases And Antibiotic Resistance Essay

2337 words - 9 pages

© Sajad Bahram Yr 12: H.S.C Biology Assessment task 4
AL FAISAL COLLEGEH.S.C BIOLOGYASSESSMENT TASK 4RESEARCH TASKDUE DATE: Wednesday 2ND July 2008 Term 2 Week 10OUTCOMES ASSESSED: H3 H4 H8 H11 H12 H13 H14 H15 H16WEIGHTING: 25%CONTENTSPART 1: INFECTIOUS DISEASES p 2-3PART 2: PROBLEMS RELATING TO ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE p 4PART 3: CATARACTS AND CATARACT SURGERY p 5PART 4: COCHLEAR IMPLANTS p 6BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCE p 7-8PART 1: INFECTIOUS DISEASES- TUBERCULOSISCauses of TuberculosisTuberculosis is caused the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and spreads in microscopic droplets through coughs, talking, laughing, singing or sneezing. These bacteria were first identified in 1882 by Robert Koch who described their appearance under the microscope as rod-shaped germs or bacilli. Anyone of any age, race or nationality can contract TB, but certain factors increase your risk of the disease. Some of these factors include:Lowered Immunity.Close contact with someone with infectious TB.Nationality.Age.Substance Abuse.Malnutrition.Lack of medical care.International travel.Who is the HostMycobacterium tuberculosis is the pathogen agent of tuberculosis in humans. Humans are the only reservoir and host for the bacterium. Mycobacterium bovis is the pathogen agent of TB in cows and rarely in humans. Both cows and humans can serve as reservoirs. Humans can also be infected by the consumption of unpasteurised milk. This route of transmission can lead to the development of extrapulmonary TB, demonstrated in history by bone infections that led to hunched backs.Mode of TransmissionTuberculosis is spread through air droplets which are expelled when persons with infectious TB disease cough, sneeze, speak, or sing. The tuberculosis germ is carried on droplets in the air, and can enter the body through the airway. A person with active pulmonary tuberculosis can spread the disease by coughing or sneezing. The process of catching tuberculosis involves two stages: first, a person has to become infected; second, the infection has to progress to disease. To become infected, a person has to come in close contact with another person having active tuberculosis. In other words, the person has to breathe the same air in which the person with active disease coughs or sneezes.What are the SymptomsThe primary stage of the tuberculosis may be symptom-free, or the individual may experience a flu-like illness. In the secondary stage when the disease is active there might be a slight fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue and various other symptoms, depending on the part of the body affected. Tuberculosis of the lung is usually associated with a dry cough that eventually leads to a productive cough with blood-stained sputum. There might also be chest pain and shortness of breath.Host ResponseIt has only been recently that an understanding of the human host response in this infection has begun to emerge. The key components of this response are cytokines and components of...

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