Infectious Diseases Essay

1889 words - 8 pages

Infectious DiseasesA communicable disease is an illness caused by micro-organisms. It is transmitted from an infected animal or person to another person or animal. It is also called a contagious disease.Not all microbes can cause disease. The ones that can are called pathogens. Pathogens have developed to infect the body's tissues, where they reproduce and cause damage. Various types of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa can cause disease.PathogensDiseasesBacteria*Cholera*Diptheria*Plague*Tetanus*Tuberculosis*Typhoid Fever*Gonorrhea*Syphilis*Whooping CoughVirus*Chicken Pox*Common Cold*Flu*Gastric Flu*Measles*Mumps*Polio*Rubella*Smallpox*Yellow FeverFungus*Athlete's Foot*ThrushProtozoa*Malaria*Trypanosomiasis*Amoebic DysentryNote: Amoebic Dysentry causes severe diarrhoea and in severe cases, liver damage. It spreads by contaminated water and food. It can be treated, but re-infection can occur if water supply isn't kept clean.Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is found inly in Africa and is spread by the bite of a small insect called tsetse fly. Months later, the infected person starts showing symptoms, including a rash, fever, severe headaches and extreme tiredness. If not treated, the protozoa can cause death as it attacks the central nervous system.BacteriaBacteria (singular: bacterium) are a major group of microscope organisms. The name bacterium was introduced in 1828, derived from the Greek word meaning "small stick". Bacteria are prokaryotes, which mean that they have no true nucleus. Most bacteria are benign (good) or beneficial, and only a few are pathogens (harmful). In a bacterium's natural environment, nutrients are limited, meaning that bacteria cannot continue to reproduce indefinitely. There are many ways for bacteria to spread including direct contact, indirect contact, droplet transmission, particle transmission and vectors. Direct contact and vectors spread the bacteria from host to host except vectors are insects for example mosquitoes. Droplet and particle transmission spread through the air. Indirect contact is when bacteria linger on an inanimate object and then spreads to an uninfected host.Bacteria that cause disease are broadly classified according to their shape. The four main groups include:Bacillus- shaped like a rod with a length of around three-hundredths of a millimetre. Illnesses such as typhoid and cystitis are caused by bacilli strains.Cocci- shaped like a sphere with a diameter of around one-thousandths of a millimetre. Depending in the sort, cocci bacteria group themselves in a range of ways, such as in pairs, ling lines or tight clusters. Can cause spots, boils and throat infections.Spirochaetes- As the name suggests, these bacteria are shaped like tiny spirals, Spirochaetes bacteria are responsible for a range of diseases, including STI syphilis.Vibrio- shaped like a thin crescent moon, and is sometimes mixed up with protozoa even though its hundreds of times bigger than bacteria. It bacteria can cause...

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