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Infectious Diseases: Zoonosis Essay

1253 words - 6 pages

Zoonosis are infectious diseases that have been transmitted between animals and humans or in its advanced stage from human to human. It also can be transmitted from human to animal, when that happens it is called reverse zoonosis. Emerging zoonosis are infectious diseases that are newly recognized or newly evolved while re-emergence zoonosis have occurred previously but have more recently shown an increase in incidence or expansion into a new geographic, host or vector range. The concept of ‘emerging zoonotic diseases’ developed as health scientists documented and tried to explain the apparent abrupt rise in the number of new and important infectious diseases over the past two decades ...view middle of the document...

Communities planting crops in fixed location rapidly became towns and cities, and this fast increased exposure to their own waste which became a serious problem. Another problem was with settled farms and deposits, with this , rodents became more usual (Greger, 2007). So as known, it is not new that infectious diseases haunt mankind, since these kinds of diseases spread easily if not controlled quickly and effectively. We can see this since the discovery of the Americas with the Smallpox to nowadays with the H1N1 (swine flu) how concerning these types of diseases can be, stopping regions or even an entire country because of a breakout.
The official causes of zoonoses diseases are not 100% known, but what scholars and researchers have found is that the processes and factors that may have given rise to emerging or re-emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases which originated in wildlife include the following: expanding human populations and increased contact with wild animals or their products; ecosystem changes of natural or anthropogenic origin, with climatic and geographic influences on pathogens and vectors; increased human-assisted movement of animals and animal products; wildlife-associated microbes entering intensive livestock-based agricultural systems; intensive farming of formerly wild species; increased frequency and speed of local and international travel; changes in the microbes themselves, or their host spectrum (crossing the species barrier); improved technical diagnostic and epidemiological techniques, which have resulted in the recent detection of an existing or novel disease agent (Bengis et al., 2004). Exotic Pet Trade; livestock Transport (Greger, 2007).
Although there are four forms of zoonosis (virus, bacteria, fungi and parasite), two of them are much more spread out and available for contraction. The first one is viral, since transmission through air is much more rapid and fast. Zoonotic viral infection can become a real problem if well established in the area and even worse if adapted for human to human transmission. That being said, it might become an endemic problem in some regions or populations if not treated. And if not properly controlled it might turn into a pandemic situation spreading throughout the whole country and nearby countries, or even worldwide. The second one is bacteria, which does not spread as rapidly as viral but still has a significant impact on the animal and human populations. Foodborne and waterborne infections can be caused by zoonotic agents if exposed to infected animals. Some examples of foodborne are E. coli, Salmonella, Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella spp.(Blancou et al.,, 2005). Examples of waterborne are Leptospirosis, cholera and dysentery.
Some methods to control zoonotic diseases are mainly target to reduce the zoonotic agent in its reservoir, or eradicating, using the methods of sanitary prophylaxes, or medical prophylaxes (Blancou et al.,...

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