Info Tech Essay

1594 words - 6 pages

Unit 1: Fundamentals of Hardware and SoftwareSystems and Application Software Hand -OutA computer system is consists of hardware and software. Software or programs is used to complete any activity/ task on a computer. Software can be used for running the hardware or for performing various tasks. There are two major categories, namely:System softwareApplication softwareSYSTEM SOFTWARESystem software are programs that enables the computer system to run properly and efficiently. Systems software must be installed before application software can run. There are three types:Operating systemUtilitiesTranslatorsOperating System (OS)An operating system is a system software that enables the hardware devices to function together as a computer system.Booting is the process of the operating system being loaded into the computer when it is started up.Some examples of OS are Windows, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS and DOS.Functions of OSFile Management- all the files created in secondary storage media, such as the hard disk, are stored within its various files. The OS is responsible for creating, deleting, renaming of files and folders and also making back-up copies of files.Memory Management- the Os allocates areas of memory to different programs so that each program can function effectively.Provide Security - modern computer systems require the entry of a password in order to access the system. The OS provide the user with password protection to prevent unauthorized access. It also provides backup and recovery routines in case of system failure.Input/Output Device Management - there are many peripheral devices such as keyboards, mouse and monitors that can be connected to the system unit. The OS makes the communication possible between the peripheral devices and the system unit.Provide a friendly user interface - the method by which user interacts with the computer system is called user interface. The OS provides the user with a friendly interface that will help the user to interact with computer system.Process Management- A program that is running can be considered as a process and a program can have many sub-program. Therefore, many processes would occur in a computer system when a program is being executed. The process management function of the OS involves allocating adequate time and recourses of the CPU to each process.Based on the type of operating system, it can also perform the following:Multitasking: this is when the operating system allows the user to perform several tasks at the same time, switch between them and share information.Multiprogramming: when users can run two or more programs at the same time using a single processor.Multiprocessing: when users can run two or more programs using multiple processors.Time-sharing: when each user is given a 'time slice' so that each user feels that they get the full attention of the CPU.UtilitiesUtilities are system programs that can be added to the main operating system to carry out extra tasks. Utility programmes...

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