Informal and Incidental Learning
Formal learning is a recognized process of study reworded with certificate or a form of special recognition by specific institution. Formal learning is based in the classroom, usually the institution sponsors this type of learning and it has structured forms.
Informal learning includes incidental learning, different locations than classroom such as work place institution, and not highly structured. The learners control their own study progress and they deicide how much they want to learn. Informal learning is usually intentional such as self-directed learning, networking, coaching, and mentoring. Informal learning can happen incidentally and unconscious.
The following authors (Marsick and Watkins 1990 pg. 25) and (Garrick 1998 pg. 26) had been compared informal learning to the concept of “en passant”.
Informal learning compared to formal learning and conformal by ( Reischmann 1986 pg. 26), social modeling by Bandura in 1986, experimental learning by Boud, Cohen, Walker in 1993, self directed by Candy 1991.
The others authors compared incidental learning to:
- action learning as a variant of experiential learning,
- action science
- reflection in action
- critical reflection and trans-formative learning
- tacit knowing
- situated cognition
- communities of practice
Incidentals and informal learning is practiced in many cultures in different context, for example in the private and public sectors, hospitals, health cares, colleges and universities, schools, professional associations, museums, religious organizations, families, and communities.
Learning from the study
According to study conducted by Colbert and Diesel teachers learn informally through reflection, action, and when their collaboration is nurtured in the culture. This finding in this study can be used to develop policies, practices, and ongoing learning with daily work in the school.
According to the study conducted by Callahan informal and incidental learning provides opportunities for interaction, opportunities to share a new concept by young entrepreneurial businesses, and to learn to manage their business with the technical expertise.
The other study conducted by Cseh’s 1998 in Romania...