Information Gathering Essay

1088 words - 5 pages

#1. The explanatory variables of signal coding, signal interpretation and search behavior evoked can be related or compared to three decision-making models. Those three decision-makings models are the behavioral decision, garbage can model and the political model theories. According to the behavioral decision theory, decision makers deal with chaos and uncertainty but ultimately make their decisions on what they know. This means that based on their knowledge, beliefs, and values, decision makers incorporate these values to make appropriate decisions. The other theory described in the article is the garbage can model. This model states that a decision maker makes a decision based upon whatever problems, options and solutions are available at some point in time. This can be described as a “garbage can” because a collection of choices are mixed and then chosen to match a problem to a solution. Per the article, “The choice situation becomes a “garbage can” in which problems and solutions are dumped” (Nutt, 606). According to the political model, decision makers base decisions on personal decisions rather than organizational issues. An irrational decision is rational to them because it achieves their ultimate goal. “ This prompts decision makers to seek information that bolsters their position by maintaining images of self, attitudes and the like. Decision makers create the impression that they have arrived at an unbiased inference by making their interpretation of trends and events seem equitable to all concerned” (Nutt, 606). In conclusion, the decision-making models do relate to the information described in the explanatory variable Table 1. As decision makers need to find the appropriate approach to solve problems and execute the best decision.
#2. The approach that Nutt suggested in the article, in regards to gathering and extrapolating data involves a two-step process. The first step involves the process of decoding a performance gap, which is used to motivate action. The performance gap can be measured with different degrees of precision, which in turn is used to classify three specific variables. Those value variables can be quantitative, qualitative or impressionistic. Once a variable has been chosen, then you can move the next step. The other step involves, interpreting premises that frame what needs to be done. First a premise falls into two categories, a need or opportunity. A need is performance driven, calling for better results and an opportunity is action driven, calling for a particular action. Both action and performance are moderated by two additional categories know as threats. A defined threat is accompanied by considerable urgency and importance. An undefined threat is related to high importance and urgency. These premises eventually lead to how the search effort is carried out to make the decisions. “Studies show that a search can be carried out with a rational process, a negotiation, an opportunity validation, emergent...

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