Johannessen and Olsen (2010) noted “with this economic landscape, knowledge itself became a factor of production—specifically, knowledge related to identifying and exploiting new ways to establish temporary competitive advantage” (p. 502). Their observation reflects that under today’s business environment, the ability to optimize information is a significant factor that enables such companies to succeed their businesses. However, the use of information is more important than just limited in business practices, also for everyone living and other professional arenas (Badke, 2009; Turusheva, 2009). Educational institutions in which are responsible for teaching students to ingrain knowledge that uses for achieving their living and professional may need to focus on improving teaching students efficiently of using information competence that will enable students how to use information effectively and accurately.
The Change of Using Information
Today’s operating business, companies have changed the way of using information to sustain their performances entirely different from they used to do. Recently, companies used information that generated from research and development (R&D) either was a department inside the company or hiring any R&D company from outside. Information that a company received from R&D department typically based on the company’s need (Johannessen & Olsen, 2010). The new business strategy as customer centric in which companies operate their businesses by generating information through customers, prospective customers, and consumers to find their needs, and satisfy them (Johannessen & Olsen, 2010).
Companies also need improving their abilities broadly to find accurate and relevant information through other external, corporate stakeholders, such as suppliers, markets, communities, and politics that help them effectively to predict such customer and market trends (Johannessen & Olsen, 2010). The customer centric strategy also affected such companies to shift themselves from close to open in the form of connect and develop with the external stakeholders for creating values to their products and services (Chesbrough, 2003, as cited in Johannessen & Olsen, 2010). The connect and develop model change such companies in these areas of doing business, such as individualized immediate feedback, a new organizational logic, and new cooperation structure that influence by information (Johannessen & Olsen, 2010).
The three areas affected by the use of external information stated previously affect such a company to make change responding to the new strategy (Johannessen & Olsen, 2010). For instance, to perform individualized immediate feedback, a company needs employees who have abilities to analyze and evaluate feedback information. Employees as a frontline in the business operation whose roles are receiving, delivering, and responding feedbacks to both internal and external stakeholders, such as managers,...