The advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have made many electronic services possible. This revolution is not only changing the daily lives of people but is also changing the characteristics of interactions between governments and citizens. These changes, in turn, are rapidly being transformed into new forms of government named electronic government (e-government). Indeed, with many Information Technology (IT) applications such as electronic commerce, e-learning, and accompanying stories of success and failure, it is inevitable to participate in the e-government movement (Layne & Lee, 2001).
Electronic Government, or e-Government and its many synonyms, has been on the international agenda for several years. Since the late 1990s, governments at all levels have launched e-government projects in order to provide electronic information and services to ...view middle of the document...
The essence of e-government is using electronic information technology to break the boundary of administrative organizations, and build up a virtual electronic government. Provision of electronic government services is one of the main goals of many governments in the digital world, public and private organizations are facing a wide range of information threats, information security is a crucial component in their information systems (Wang, 2009).
Information security is a serious requirement which must be carefully considered, not as an isolated aspect, but as an element presented in all stages of the development lifecycle, from requirement analysis to implementation and maintenance (Devanbu & Stubblebine, 2000) (Ferrari & Thuraisingham, 2000). In this way, information assurance, security and privacy have moved from being considered by information systems designers as narrow topics of interest to become critical issues of fundamental importance in our society (Denker, Kagal, & Finin, 2005).
E-government services create new security challenges to government, business and citizens. Therefore an increased variety of security services is required (Basu, 2004) (Grant & Chau, 2005); (Hwang, Li, Shen, & Chu, 2004) (Lambrinoudakis, Gritzalis, Dridi, & Pernul, 2003) (Wimmer & Von Bredow, 2002). The first issues on security coming in mind regard of course technical aspects. Security aspects not only regard technical issues. Instead, these need careful investigation from a socio-technical viewpoint as well (Wimmer & von Bredow, 2001).
In this paper, we will carry out a systematic review of the existing literature on e-government security weaknesses with the objective of knowing, study and analyzing the most relevant literature. To perform this systematic review, the study on the guideline proposed by (Kitchenham, 2004) that is appropriate for software engineering researchers. In addition, it use a review protocol template developed by (Biolchini, Mian, Natali, & Travassos, 2005) which facilitates systematic reviews planning and execution in software engineering.