Wheat flour is ingredient produced by milling wheat kernels. In pastry for most of products we use wheat flour because it gives the best texture to baked goods. To understand the differences among various types of wheat flour, you should first learn something about wheat kernel.
Wheat kernel consists of three main parts:
1. The bran, which is the hard outer covering of the grain, high in dietary fiber, vitamin B and minerals. You can recognize it in whole wheat flour; it looks like tiny brownish flakes.
2. When kernel sprouts, a new plant grows from the germ. Because of the high fat content, it easily spoils and develops bad taste.
3. When the bran and the germ are removed, the ...view middle of the document...
At that temperature, all organic components burn out, and what is left - the ash - are the minerals from the bran.
Sugars are in fact carbohydrates. Besides making our desserts sweet, they provide color, weaken gluten strands and make baked product softer, they are food for yeasts, they serve as a preservative, and they also stabilize some other ingredients. We can categorize carbohydrates as monosaccharides (simple carbohydrates- glucose and fructose), disaccharides (more complex carbohydrates) and polysaccharides (the most complex carbohydrates).
Sucrose or Saccharose, also called table sugar, is white, odorless crystalline powder, and the most often used sweetener in the kitchen. This sugar can be refined from sugar beet or sugar cane. Sucrose is disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose merged into one molecule. It is sold in several forms. The most common is granulated sugar, and it is type of sugar that we most often use in making pastries. In some countries you can find caster sugar, which is also granulated, but it has smaller crystals and because of that it is finer and it dissolves easier.
Powdered sugar or icing sugar (called also confectioner's sugar) is super fine sugar. It is made from granulated sugar, in special grinders, and then sifted in different degrees of fineness (10X is the finest, and 6X, 4X are less fine). Since it tends to lump, when processed, they add 3% of cornstarch to absorb moisture.
There are also several types of brown sugar, which is in most cases made from sugar cane. It has brown color because of molasses, by-product of sugar refining. Content of molasses in brown sugar can vary from 3,5 -6,5% .
Demerara is light brown sugar. It is usually made from sugar cane, but it can also be made from sugar beet and some molasses added afterwards.
There are lots of different sorts of brown cane sugar like muscovado, light brown sugar, dark brown sugar, rapadura, raw sugar…
Fructose is a monosaccharide naturally contained in fruits and honey. It is sweeter than regular sugar, and it absorbs more water.
Glucose (dextrose or grape syrup) is also monosaccharide. It is sold in form of thick transparent syrup, and it is often used in pastry because it prevents crystallization of sucrose and gives shine to some glazes.
When sucrose is refined with an acid, invert sugar is produced. Like glucose, it is used to prevent crystallization.
Honey is natural sweetener. It contains glucose and fructose. Honeybees create it from nectar collected from flowers.
Corn syrup is type of invert sugar. It is made of corn starch which is treated with an acid. Light corn syrup can be used as a substitute for glucose, while dark corn syrup has specific color and flavor, so it is better not to use it instead of glucose.
Maple syrup is made from several sorts of maple trees. Its basic ingredient is sap which consists primarily of sucrose and water, with small amounts of other sugars.
Agava syrup is produced from organically...