This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Inhaled Insulin A Lot Of Hot Air

4036 words - 16 pages

Inhaled Insulin - a lot of hot air!Diabetes mellitus is a disease of glucose metabolism in which the blood sugar levels are abnormally high as the body is unable to produce enough insulin to meet its requirements. There are several types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. Type 2 diabetes is non-insulin dependent and often demonstrates onset in adulthood. This type of diabetes is almost 10 times more prevalent in the United States, and is thought to be a life-style dependant disease with a strong genetic component, displaying an association with obesity and old age [Page 2006, Rang 2007]. Sufferers do not demonstrate a lack of insulin production; instead the problem appears to be linked to a loss of the signal for proper glucose uptake. The problem may lie with the insulin itself or in one of the proteins involved in glucose uptake and metabolism [Page 2006, Rang 2007]. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent and is often referred to as juvenile onset diabetes. In this disease the patient's immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells, the only cells in the body which produce the hormone insulin that regulates blood glucose. Diabetes is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions, affecting 150 million people worldwide and projected to double in prevalence by 2025. Since many cases go undiagnosed these figures are likely to be an underestimate of the true prevalence. Left uncontrolled, diabetes can lead to coronary heart disease, kidney failure, blindness, limb amputations and premature death. Compliance with insulin therapy is important in preventing the adverse clinical effects of the disease [Page 2006, Rang 2007]. Insulin, a polypeptide hormone released from the cells in the islets of Langerhans on the pancreas, acts as an anabolic signal to controls the amounts of sugar (glucose) in the blood [Page 2006, Rang 2007]. Insulin decreases the levels of glucose in the blood by binding to its receptor, thus initiating a series of events within the cells which lead to an increased uptake of glucose into the cells, converting it into metabolic energy or storing it as fat or glycogen which is stored in the liver [Page 2006, Rang 2007]. The aim of insulin treatment in people with diabetes is to mimic this natural pancreatic function by injecting long-acting insulin for all-day "basal" coverage along with short-acting "boluses" prior to meals. Currently available long-acting human insulin preparations have variable absorption with pronounced peaks that can cause hypoglycaemia [Page 2006, Rang 2007]. The original source of insulin was animals such as cows or pigs, followed by the release of the first recombinant insulin in 1982. The first biosynthetic insulin analogue available on the market was Eli Lilly's Humalog (lispro), which was created by switching lysine and proline in positions 28 and 29 on the insulin beta chain, thereby changing the insulin hexamer into a rapidly-absorbed monomer. The result is a very short-acting preparation designed to be taken...

Find Another Essay On Inhaled insulin - a lot of hot air

A Comparison of Crying of Lot 49 and White Noise

1737 words - 7 pages A Comparison of Crying of Lot 49 and White Noise   Pynchon's novel The Crying of Lot 49 has much in common with Don DeLillo's book White Noise. Both novels uncannily share certain types of characters, parts of plot structure and themes. The similarities of these two works clearly indicates a cultural conception shared by two influential and respected contemporary authors.             Character similarities in the two novels are

Biofuels: There is Potential Needs A Lot of Work

884 words - 4 pages process of producing biofuels, a lot of time and energy is put into research. Many test are done to create conditions that would benefit the production the most and in some cases, the most beneficial means of production may cost the most. In the case of algal biofuels, there are two methods that cultivates algae. One, by having an open pond system algae can grow because there is enough carbon dioxide, sunlight and water. Algae is beneficial because

A Breathe of Fresh Air

1766 words - 8 pages Taeyeon’s POV:   We were back at the dorm after another full day of schedules. I lazily laid down on my bed, being completely exhausted both mentally and physically. The day had felt so long and a headache was growing in my head. I closed my eyes and massaged my temples, an action I’ve been doing a lot lately.   Even after 7 years of schedules, my body has yet to get used to the daily routine of fatigue. Coming home day and night after

A Perceptual Study of the Effects of Hot Spot Policing

1931 words - 8 pages Review of Literature The purpose of this literature review is to provide an in-depth analysis of hot spot policing and review the main aspects of this policing strategy. This review will examine five experimental studies that have shaped hot spot policing as a viable and effective policing methodology. It will also examine the current status of hot spot policing, its benefits, and its limitations. Police random preventive patrol by a mobile

Why The Discovery of Insulin is a Defining Moment in Canadian History

2383 words - 10 pages great Canadian who has achieved a lot for himself and for Canada. The discovery of insulin has also greatly improved the quality of life and saved the lives of those suffering from diabetes. There are over 1.5 million people who suffer with diabetes around the world today, and without the discovery of insulin, many of these people would not live very long after their diagnosis. Although it is not a cure for diabetes, insulin is a treatment

VIETNAM ESSAY The Life of a Soldier in Vietnam (filled with a lot of info)

1682 words - 7 pages walk, I had a small role in organizing the onlyantiwar demonstration ever held in Beaufort, South Carolina, the home ofParris Island and the Marine Corps Air Station. In a Marine Corps town atthat time, it was difficult to come up with a quorum of people who had evenminor disagreements about the Vietnam War. But my small group managed toattract a crowd of about 150 to Beaufort's waterfront. With my mother and mywife on either side of me, we

A Comparison of On the Road and Crying of Lot 49

2303 words - 9 pages In both Jack Kerouac’s, On the Road, and Thomas Pynchon’s Crying of Lot 49 the characters act in a deviant manner outside of social norms. This in turn leads to a deviant sub-cultural group which competes with the institutionalized authorities for power. Deviance in both novels is usually defined as a certain type of behaviour, such as an inebriated professor babbling on in a lecture hall filled with students or a group of teenagers frolicking

The idea of human cloning has brought a lot of controversy and ethical questions. - English - Essay

1347 words - 6 pages Teran Fernando Ms. Josephson English Transactional 40s March 17th, 2016 Word Count: Cloning Will Bring Chaos to the Future Society Cloning has been a controversial issue ever since scientists cloned the first mammal, a sheep named Dolly, in 1996. Cloning technology has since been progressing rapidly, and methods used to clone Dolly the sheep has made it possible to clone humans as well. This idea of human cloning has brought a lot of controversy

Making a Connection in Thos Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49

1547 words - 6 pages Making a Connection in The Crying of Lot 49        For as long as I could read comprehensively, I have always believed that great writing centered around well written stories that would both provide a certain measure of unaffected pleasure, as well as challenge the readers perception of the world at large; both within and outside of the sphere of its prose. Thomas Pynchons' The Crying of Lot 49 encompasses both of those requirements

I knew I would need A lot of courage - 7th grade - Essay

1482 words - 6 pages I knew I would need a lot of courage to get through the day… Note: The sample essays on this website were written by my Junior Cert students over the years. I tidied up the spelling and grammar when necessary, but the ideas were all theirs. It is with their kind permission that these essays are reproduced here, to give you an idea of what can be done. These essays cannot be copied and passed off as your own work, of course. That is

The book "Siddhartha"conveys a lot of subtle messages: in depth analysis and a thorough character analysis of Siddhartha

1147 words - 5 pages The book "Siddhartha" subtly conveys a lot of subtle messages. In the following paper I seek to analyze the book in depth and simultaneously do a thorough character analysis of Siddhartha.Siddhartha was written by Hermann Hesse in 1922.Siddhatha is the story of a young Brahmin's search for ultimate enlightenment after realizing that he is not happy as a Brahmin. He is in search of enlightenment and undertakes the path of Buddhism even though

Similar Essays

How To Control A Hot Air Balloon

568 words - 3 pages A hot air balloon is made up of three main parts:The Envelope: The actual fabric balloon that holds the air.The Burner: The unit which propels the heat up inside the envelope.The Basket: Where the passenger and pilot stand.The way hot air balloons work, falls under basic scientific principles.The basis of how the balloon works is that warmer air rises in cool air, because hot air is lighter than cool air, as it has less mass per unit volume.Mass

Huge Problem In A Lot Of Schools

1969 words - 8 pages Literature Review Supporting Research on Bullying After reviewing and analyzing multiple sources in relation to the widespread issue of bullying in schools and academic achievement, it is apparent that there is a strong negative relationship between the two factors. That is to say that bullying is a huge problem in a lot of schools. To determine how to prevent and minimize the occurrence of bullying, there must be an understanding of the

Hot Air Balloons How They Work, How They Comply With Laws Of Thermodynamics, And How To Create A Home Made Balloon

550 words - 2 pages feet of hot air.Descent can be achieved with two possible methods. One can simply let the air cool down, or one can open a small hole to allow more air in. The latter is the more popular and preferred method because it is a lot quicker than waiting for the air to cool. These methods make sense because it allows people to understand that without hot air, flight becomes impossible.As for our balloon design, we will create a hot air balloon out of

Thermal Stratification Of A Hot Water Tank

1410 words - 6 pages For many years, the standard for residential household hot water systems has been an oil, gas, or electrical hot water tank that provides a reliable supply of water at a set temperature. The temperature gradient within the tank was thought to have little significance, as long as the output temperature was constant. It wasn’t until Sharp and Loehrke’s report [36] on the topic was published in 1979 followed by Hollands and Lightstone [37] ten