Inhibition Of Nitric Oxide Synthase Impairs A Distinct Form Of Long Term Memory In The Honeybee

3416 words - 14 pages


Nitric oxide (NO), which has demonstrated plasticity regarding processes of learning and memory, has revealed its specific function in memory formation for the honeybee. The predominant amount of NO synthase (NOS) activity has been shown to participate in the processing of olfactory information of a honeybee. A honeybee's antenna (*- Application of appetitive stimuli to the antennae of honeybees elicits extension of the proboscis (PER)) lobes are the primary centers of olfactory processing that exhibit highest NOS activity, which takes place in the brain. The lip of the mushroom body, which is involved in this process, calyces and the lateral protocerebral lobe receives input from the antennal lobs via a median and a lateral pathway; this indicates strong labeling. Neuropils of the central brain exhibited intermediate labeling.

The effects of NOS activity on honeybees were revealed injecting a hemoglobin assay. The hemoglobin assay is able to detect NO and other substances (CO, etc.), therefore, these assays reveal at least two signals. By adding NOS inhibitors to the assay mixture, the first signal can be inhibited, but the second signal cannot be inhibited. The second signal includes enzymes other than NOS. Total NOS activity (*- NOS activity: defined as that part of the signal which is sensitive to NOS inhibitors added to the assay mixture) is divided into a major Ca2+ and a minor Ca2+ independent NOS activity which suggested that the existence of at least two NOS isoforms in the honeybee brain.

Applying only 1 (l of 100 (l N-nitro-L-arginine or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 20 minutes inhibits total NOS by 80% (*-show figure 2A). Maximal inhibition of NOS was attained at an approximate concentration of 1 (M NOS inhibitor which was calculated from the injected volume and the approximate body weight of 120 mg of the honeybee. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or inactive isomer N-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME) served as injected controls showed no effect on NOS activity. NOS inhibition was shown to have a maximal effect around 20 minutes after injection of the competitive inhibitor NOArg (show Figure 2B). L-NAME injection at the same concentration leads to a similar transient NOS inhibition.

In this experiment, a honeybee's proboscis extension response (PER) was be conditioned by pairing an odor stimulus with a sucrose reward (Menzel, 1985, 1990). Throughout condition trials, the data collected suggested that the number of conditioning trials applied to the honeybee induces different memories that exhibit different properties. A single trial conditioning (*- Blocking of NOS during conditioning shows distinct effects on the conditioned PER tested at 24 hours, depending on the number of conditioning trials applied to the animal.) (tested 30 minutes after conditioning) leads to a medium-term memory that lasts for a couple of hours, while multiple trial conditioning induced a long-term memory in the...

Find Another Essay On Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthase Impairs a Distinct Form of Long-Term Memory in the Honeybee

Free recall from short-term memory and long-term memory

1208 words - 5 pages IntroductionVisual search, the task of finding a target among distractors, is a common task in our daily lives. Whether we are searching for the remote control among a clutter of objects on table, a face in the crowd at the local bus stop, or a meal listing on the menu at the fast-food restaurant, we rely on the mechanism of visual search and attention each and every day. The ease of search depends primarily on how distinguishable the target of

Robert D. Furchgott’s Contribution to the Discovery of Nitric Oxide as a Cardiovascular Signaling

1506 words - 6 pages Nitric oxide is an abundant and diverse secondary signaling molecule throughout the body, playing roles in memory, learning, inflammation, and blood pressure. It is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine and oxygen, though there are three known types of NOS: NOS 1, NOS 2 and NOS 34. NOS 1 and 3 are stimulated by high intracellular calcium ion concentrations, as caused by vasodilators like acetylcholine and bradykinin while

Short-term in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen

1578 words - 6 pages Introduction: Overt type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent form of diabetes, accounting for approximately 90% of the 20.8 million cases in the United States. Unlike type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus is most commonly caused by a defect in insulin action on cells rather than by a defect in the insulin itself1. It has recently been shown that overactivity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) may be implicated in

Robert D. Furchgott’s Contribution to Physiology and the Discovery of Nitric Oxide as a Cardiovascular Signaling Molecule

1988 words - 8 pages research and study6. Fruchgott’s Work with Nitric Oxide In 1980 Furchgott revisited his research with rabbit aorta and receptor theory and made an interesting discovery. When preparing the aorta tissue to reexamine the receptors present, a lab technician accidentally tested low concentrations of carbachol and acetylcholine (ACh) on the tissue prior to contracting the it with dibenamine (as described in directions); a marked vasodilation was

Nitric Oxide (NO) and the Nervous System

1922 words - 8 pages (Snyder;1992). This was a long sought model for long-term potentiation (LTP), a process by which memory formation occurs; a neurotransmitter that traveled backward to affect the pre-synaptic neuron (Holloway;1992). A natural consequence of this model of LTP was proposed by Edelman; he stated that another function of NO in the brain might be in the formation of cortical maps (i.e., proper axo-dendritic, axo-axonic, and dendro-dendritic connections

The Long Term Effects of Marijuana

1215 words - 5 pages ideas, loss of memory, irregular sleep habits, insomnia, decrease in muscle strength and blurred vision. (Zhu and Sharma 243-244) There is not a lot of information available of the evidence for the harmful consequences of marijuana smoking, as there have not been many long-term studies, which is required. Habitual marijuana use, as often as one joint per day, may result in serious pulmonary, immune and psychological consequences. With chronic

The Long-Term Effects of Bullying

1978 words - 8 pages bullying lightly thinking that it is just a part of kids being kids. Whereas to an adolescent, bullying can cause long-term effects as they transition into adulthood. However, in order for one to examine the long-term effects of bullying one must be able to define what bullying is and determine the cause and effect. When defining what bullying is one must take into consideration the thoughts and feelings of a child; this is because a child’s

The Long Term Effects of Stress

720 words - 3 pages body produces cortisol. This is a hormone that, in the short term, helps prevent infection and inflammation. Long term presence of cortisol in your system suppresses some functions of your immune response which can then heightening the risk of infection. It also raises the levels of blood glucose, which leads to the release of insulin, a hormone that controls blood-sugar levels. Prolonged stress can damage the cells that produce insulin.

The Long Term Effects of Child Abuse

2491 words - 10 pages Long Term Effects of Abuse Herb was a very loving little boy, who always tried to make everyone around him happy. He would climb up in your lap at the age of two or three, and whisper in your ear “I’m your boy, but don’t tell nobody”. Growing up, Herb was an accomplished athlete, and performed reasonably well academically. As Herb reached adulthood, he always took great strides to make the people around him feel happy and special. It was not

The Long Term Effects of Child Abuse

1476 words - 6 pages Possible Examples of the Long-Term Effects of Abuse • In adulthood they abuse their loved ones. (Berman, PhD, How childhood abuse can manifest is adult relationships), "It is estimated that up to one-third of abused or neglected children will act out the same abusive behavior they were subjected to when they become parents or caretakers.”(N.D.) • They become addicted to drugs and/or alcohol. (Center for Disease Control and Pervention, National

The long term effects of playing football

583 words - 2 pages for a couple plays or even the game. Also intermitting itself in this is the "I have to better than him" motive, which means the thoughts of taking performance enhancing drugs. Taking these drugs can cause major thought and anguish in the long run. If the decision is made to take them then if caught you will be all over the news and fined which will tarnish peoples respect for you. In conclusion there are many effects that come from

Similar Essays

The Control Processes Of Short And Long Term Memory

1194 words - 5 pages repeat it to ourselves ( acoustic), and it has to be significant to us otherwise we would have a need to remember it (semantic). Memory Storage Storage in the human memory is the second of the three processes. The process of storing information involves filtering out and filing information so our brain does not experience an information overload. The information our brain receives can be stored into our long-term, short-term or sensory

The Effect Of Aerobic Exercise Training On Memory: Can Increasing Aerobic Exercise Improve Long Term Memory In Healthy Young Adults?

1882 words - 8 pages exercise carried out in the form of hours per week and the rate of long-term memory on a ten-point scale. Questions regarding the subject's amount of exercise will be asked, for e.g., "How many hours of aerobic exercise do you usually do in a week?" Subjects will be required to self-rate their long-term memory on a ten-point scale. In addition, subjects will also be asked to give information regarding sickness or diseases that affect memory for

Long Term Memory Essay

1087 words - 5 pages definition, the material does build upon itself throughout. This means that while I will not be explicitly tested over the same material twice, I will need to be able to utilize previously tested material in future tests if needed. I would also like to retain this knowledge for use outside of the course. Information that resides in long-term memory has gone through quite the process in reaching the status of a durable memory. First, new

Short Term And Long Term Memory

1245 words - 5 pages form of rehearsal (mentioned earlier) besides maintenance rehearsal, which is quite effective – elaborate rehearsal .ie. mental activities by which the individual organises the items he wishes to remember, encodes them, or relaets them to one another and to any stored information in long term memory. It may sound similar to maintenance rehearsal, but elaborate rehearsal increases the probability of later retrieval. Whatever else seen and thought about at the time of rehearsal will be linked to some of the items and can also serve as a retrieval cue later.