This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Insecticidal Efficacy Essay

2006 words - 8 pages

Hussein (1991) reported that the use of Tween-80 and Span-80 surfactants as synergistic agents had improved the insecticidal efficacy and lowered the LC50 values from 3.3 to 5 times in case of Cyphenothrin and from 3.2 to 5.7 times in case of fenitrothion. Tween-80 was found more effective than Span-80. The combination ratios between the insecticides and the surfactants are important in determining the insecticidal efficacy.
Abdel-Rahman et al. (1995) evaluated the toxicological effects of five different insecticides (Propoxur, Fenitrothion, D-Phenothrin, Malathion and Permethrin) separately and in combination with two surfactants (Triton X-100 and Tween-20) on Culex pipiens larvae. The results indicated that, the efficiency of the tested chemical insecticides on the bases of their LC50 values could be arranged in descending order as follows: Propoxur > Fenitrothion > D-Phenothrin > Malathion > Permethrin. The used insecticides appeared have high toxicity values against the two tested strains (Abbassia strain and Kashish strain) of Culex pipiens larvae indicating no evidence of development of resistance. Moreover, the addition of three concentrations of the surfactants Tween-20 or Triton X-100 as synergists increase the toxicity of the tested insecticides. The co-toxicity coefficient was concentration dependent.
Bakr (1995) indicated that, the use of two of the common surfactants (Triton X-100 and Tween-20) with IGR's, Bay Sir 8514, Altosid and RO-08-9801 increased the biological activity of IGR's against susceptible and resistant strains of C. pipiens larvae. The use of the surfactants Triton X-100 and Tween-20 as synergistic agent to IGR's improved the insecticidal efficiency and lowered the LC50 values. The results point out the importance of the addition of surfactants (synergistic agent) to IGR's candidates for economical mosquito control in integrated program.
Hussein et al. (2005) they studied the effect of four commercial pyrethroid-based insecticides Cypermethrin, Fenvalerate, Killer and Tyfon super 20 as larvicides against a laboratory strain of Culex pipiens. Kerosene and Tween 80 1% in kerosene were tested as larvicides and pupicides against the same population. The results showed that the mixture of kerosene and Tween 80 could be used as an effective larvicide and pupicide at much lower rates of application compared to kerosene alone, which reduces the environmental pollution to a great extend.
Kamel et al. (2005) evaluated the synergistic action of Tween 80 and Piperonyl butoxide on the larvicidal activities of ethanol extracts of Achillea fragrantissima and Cleome droserifolia and petroleum ether extracts of Cleome droserifolia and Gomphocarpus sinaicus against Ochlerotatus caspius mosquito larvae. The value of synergistic ratio was found greater than one in all the mixtures either with Tween 80 or Piperonyl butoxide.
4. Joint action of plant extracts and insecticide:
Kalyanasundaram and Babu (1982) mentioned that...

Find Another Essay On Insecticidal Efficacy

When the Bubble Burst Essay

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I

phase diagram Essay

4456 words - 18 pages Introduction: Chemical equilibrium is a crucial topic in Chemistry. To represent and model equilibrium, the thermodynamic concept of Free energy is usually used. For a multi-component system the Gibbs free energy is a function of Pressure, Temperature and quantity (mass, moles) of each component. If one of these parameters is changed, a state change to a more energetically favorable state will occur. This state has the lowest free energy

Revolutionary Work of Art

1890 words - 8 pages Walter Benjamin emphasizes in his essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility” that technology used to make an artwork has changed the way it was received, and its “aura”. Aura represents the originality and authenticity of a work of art that has not been reproduced. The Sistine Chapel in the Vatican is an example of a work that has been and truly a beacon of art. It has brought a benefit and enlightenment to the art

Enlightenment Thought in New Zealand Schools

1594 words - 6 pages In this essay I will be looking at how the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment have shaped New Zealand Education. I will also be discussing the perennial tension of local control versus central control of education, and how this has been affected by the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment. The enlightenment was an intellectual movement, which beginnings of were marked by the Glorious Revolution in Britain

Psychological Egoism Theory

2240 words - 9 pages The theory of psychological egoism is indeed plausible. The meaning of plausible in the context of this paper refers to the validity or the conceivability of the theory in question, to explain the nature and motivation of human behavior (Hinman, 2007). Human actions are motivated by the satisfaction obtained after completing a task that they are involved in. For example, Mother Teresa was satisfied by her benevolent actions and

How Celtic Folkore has Influenced My Family

1587 words - 6 pages Every family has a unique background that influences the way they live and interact with other people. My parents, who emigrated from Ireland to the States with my three brothers in 1989, brought over their own Celtic folklore and traditions that have helped shaped the way our family operates and lives. One aspect of folklore that has helped shape my family dynamic is the Celtic cross—both its background and what role it has played in our lives

Julia Margaret Cameron

1406 words - 6 pages At a time when women were looked upon as being homemakers, wives, mothers and such the late 1850's presented a change in pace for one woman in specific. Photography was discovered in 1826 and soon after the phenomenon of photography was being experimented with and in turn brought new and different ways of photo taking not only as documenting real time, but also conceptualizing a scene in which an image would be taken. Julia Margaret Cameron will

Evaluation of School Improvement

1403 words - 6 pages The evaluation process should be progressive to incorporate overall planning, implement changes, which contribute to success. In order to focus on school climate and norms, the evaluation design must include the students, instructions, and outcomes to improve communication and building-level concerns to be address in this response. School Climate and Social Norms The school principal, other staff leaders, and personnel set the tone and the

Case Study: The Benefits of Animal Testing

1757 words - 7 pages Nine year old Amy has already had a rough start in life. She was born with an abnormal heart that hinders her everyday activities. Amy is unable to keep up with kids her own age because she often tires out easily. As a consequence, she has very little friends and is often alone. Amy is forced to take different medications everyday just to survive. Amy’s life consists of medicine, doctors, and constant hospital visits. However, Amy is due for a

Myth and Magic: Realism in "One Hundred Years of Solitude"

1531 words - 6 pages “He enjoyed his grandmother's unique way of telling stories. No matter how fantastic or improbable her statements, she always delivered them as if they were the irrefutable truth” (Wikipedia, 2011). Experiences are particular instances of one personally encountering or undergoing something and in these moments of time life changes for the best or the worst and memories are formed. These recollections such as riding your first bicycle, going to

Adiponectin: a Novel Indicator of Malnutrition and Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients

2384 words - 10 pages Objective Protein-Energy malnutrition (PEM) and inflammation are common and overlapping conditions in hemodialysis patients which are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine which is exclusively produced by adipose tissue. Few studies in hemodialysis patients have demonstrated that serum levels of adiponectin were significantly higher in malnourished patients compared to well-nourished ones. The

Similar Essays

Toxicological Studies Essay

1023 words - 4 pages stages. d- The 4th post treatment count after 8 weeks from spraying: Data presented in the same table and figure showed significant difference between the efficacy of the insecticidal agent used on the different stages of the studied pest where "F" value was 14.3 and L.S.D was 8.12 at 5% level. The preadult stage recorded the highly affected one (93.29%) followed by adult and gravid females stages which recorded good affect (74.86% and

Pest Control: The Egyptian Cotton Leaf Worm

1237 words - 5 pages spurred increased interest in alternative insecticides such as utilization of plant extraction and insect growth regulators (IGRs) which are currently evaluated for insecticidal efficacy, IGRs are considered to have little human toxicity, because humans do not make chitin and do not make or use the hormones insects use in moulting (Schmutterer, 1985). The use of IGRs compounds in insect control is known as insect developmental

Larvicidal Activity Of Insect Growth Regulator Igr And Insecticides

1872 words - 7 pages efficacy of the IGRs-21149, an oxime [O-(2-(4-Phenoxyphenoxy) ethyl propionaldoxime], against 2nd and 4th instar larvae and pupae of An. quadrimaculatus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. tarsalis. The compounds produced an overall mortality or 95% inhibition of adult emergence at 0.0047, 0.0013 and 0.00041 mg/liter in the three species, respectively. The LC95 values for another IGRs-31183, a pyridine compound, [1-(4-Phenoxyphenoxy)-2-(2 pyridyloxy) propane] were

Roll Back Malaria Essay

2700 words - 11 pages and surveillance (Heymann 2006). One limitation towards elimination and eradication of malaria is resistance. Resistance occurs when the efficacy of a control measure is reduced due to prolonged exposure of the malaria parasite and /or vector to sub-therapeutic doses of an intervention (Hemingway, Field & Vontas 2002). The Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative was established in 1998 to strengthen health systems in malaria endemic countries and