Inside Jobs Essay

850 words - 3 pages

Windi Yulianti (1306497554)Review Film Inside JobPart 1 : How We Got HereSetelah depresi besar, Amerika Serikat memiliki perkembangan ekonomi selama 40 tahun tanpa adanya krisis finansial. Amerika Serikat memiliki dua tipe bank yakni bank biasa (bank lokal) dimana melarang spekulasi dengan simpanan nasabah, dan bank investasi yang menangani saham dan perdgangan obligasi.Pada tahun 1981 presiden Ronald Reagen didukung oleh ahli ekonomi dan finansial mulai deregulasi selama 30 tahun, bersamaan di tahun ini juga industri finansial meledak atau memiliki banyak peminat, serta bank investasi mulai melepas saham sehingga orang-orang di Wall Street menjadi kaya raya.Pada tahun 1982, Amerika Serikat meregulasi perusahaan simpan pinjam ( mengizinkan untuk melakukan investasi berbahaya dengan uang nasabah) kemudian gagal dan akhirnya membebankan pembayaran pajak 124 miliar dolar. Greenspan dipilih sebagai kepala dari bank general Amerika Serikat yang dipilih oleh presiden W Bush dan pada waktu itu deregulasi dibawah pimpinan beliau.Akhir tahun 1990, sektor finansial mengkosolidasikn menjadi beberapa firma raksasa, hal ini terjadi dibawah pemerintahan Clincton dan berkembang pesat. Dan dimulai pada tahun 1990 kemajuan teknologi dan deregulasi menciptakan produk finansial yang lebih rumit, yang disebut derevatif. Dimana ahli ekonomi dan bankir mengatakan hal tersebut dapat membuat pasar lebih aman, dengan produk ini bankir dapat melakukan perjudian terhadap apapun. Adanya deregulasi makin memperparah keadaan ini, dimana menjadi pendapatan yang menggiurkan bagi para bankir. Derivatif memiliki sistem kerja sebagai berikut : Pada sistem yang lama, saat pemilik rumah membayar hipotek setiap bulan, para pemberi cicilan mengharapkan uangnya untuk kembali. Sedangkan pada sistem yang baru, peminjam menjual hipotek kepada bank investasi, bank investasi menggabungkan barbagai jenis pinjaman dan hipotek tersebut kemudian menciptakan derivatif rumit yang disebut obligasi hutang atau Collateralized Debt Obligation (CDO) yang dijual kepada investor. Jadi ketika peminjam membayar hutangnya maka ia secara tidak langsung membayar hal tersebut kepada investor di seluruh dunia. Bank investasi membayar lembaga pemberi peringkat untuk menilai CDO tersebut dan banyak diantaranya diberi nilai AAA (rating tertinggi dalam suatu investasi). Bank tidak lagi peduli kepada peminjam (apakah ia mampu membayar atau tidak) karena semakin banyak hipotek yang mereka jual ke bank investasi makin banyak keuntungan yang mereka dapat. Lembaga peringkat juga tidak dituntut apapun walaupun peringkat yang mereka berikan salah.Pada tahun 1998, Citi Corp dan travelers bergabung menjadi Citi Group yang merupakan perusahaan pelayanan keuangan terbesar di dunia.Part 2 : The Bubble (2001-2007)Pada saat ini, setiap orang mendapat hipotek sehingga pembelian rumah dan harga rumah melambung pesat. Maka terjadi penggelembungan keuangan yang luar biasa. Selama masa penggelembungan ini bank mulai meminjam banyak...

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