Sleeping Disorders Essay

924 words - 4 pages

SLEEPING DISORDERSNIGHT TERRORSSleep Terrors or Night Terrors also called Pavor Nocturnus. It is a situation in which there is sudden awakening, usually sitting up, with intense anxiety usually beginning with a panicky scream or cry. It is usually found in children of age 2 - 12 years and eventually disappears after 12 years of age, but for some the problem may remain even in adulthood. Sleep terrors usually begin during the first third of the major sleep episode and last from 1 - 10 minutes. The episodes are accompanied by autonomic arousal and behavioural manifestations of intense fear. During an episode, the individual is difficult to awaken or comfort. If the individual awakens after the sleep terror, no dream is recalled, or only fragmentary, single images are recalled. On awakening the following morning, the individual has amnesia for the event.During a typical episode, the individual abruptly sits up in bed screaming or crying, with a frightened expression and autonomic signs of intense anxiety (e.g., tachycardia, rapid breathing, flushing of the skin, sweating, dilation of the pupils, increased muscle tone). The individual is usually unresponsive to the efforts of others to awaken or comfort him or her. If awakened, the person is confused and disoriented for several minutes and recounts a vague sense of terror, usually without dream content. Although fragmentary vivid dream images may occur, a story-like dream sequence (as in nightmares) is not reported. Most commonly, the individual does not awaken fully, but returns to sleep, and has amnesia for the episode on awakening the next morning. Some individuals may vaguely recall having an "episode" during the previous night, but do not have detailed recall. Usually only one episode will occur on any one night, although occasionally several episodes may occur at intervals throughout the night.Sleep terrors begin during deep NREM sleep that is characterized by slow-frequency EEG activity (delta). This EEG activity is most prevalent during stages 3 and 4 NREM sleep, which is concentrated in the first third of the major sleep episode. Therefore, sleep terrors are also most likely to occur in the first third of the night. However, episodes can occur during slow-wave sleep at any time, even during daytime naps. The onset of sleep terror episodes is typically heralded by very high voltage EEG delta activity, an increase in muscle tone, and a twofold to fourfold increase in heart rate, often to over 120 beats per minute.PREVALANCEThere are limited data on Sleep Terror Disorder in the general population. The prevalence of sleep terror episodes has been estimated at l%-6% among children more common in boys, and tends to run in families. It is less than 1% in adults.COURSESleep Terror Disorder usually begins in...

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