Chad is an ethnically diverse African country that also happens to be one of the poorest countries in Africa. Chad gained its independence from France in 1960 after a sixty year rule. There are several national cultures in Chad that are based on ethnoregional and religious affiliations. There are more than 200 ethnic groups in Chad, and those in the north and east are typically Muslim; most southerners are Animists and Christians. Through their long religious and commercial relationships with Sudan and Egypt, many of the people in Chad's eastern and central regions have become more or less Arabized, speaking Arabic and engaging in many other Arab cultural practices as well (Azevedo, Graham, and Nnadozie, 1997). The people who reside in southern Chad took more readily to European culture during the French colonial period.
The county of Chad is 495,752 square miles and is three times larger than California, according to the CIA World Fact Book (2010). Chad has a population of 10,543,464 as of July 2010, which is a population density of 14.2 people per square mile
and a population growth rate of 2.038 percent, according to the CIA World Fact Book (2010). Chad also has an urban population of twenty-seven percent, according to the CIA World Fact Book (2010).
Chad is one of the poorest countries on the African continent. Chad's economy is mostly agricultural and eighty percent of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock rising as their livelihood, cotton farming, growing sorghum, millet, groundnuts, vegetables, and fruits (Azevedo, Graham, and Nnadozie, 1997). The other twenty percent of Chad's population works in the services industry such as, manufacturing, services, and the military.
According to the CIA World Fact Book, eighty percent of Chad's population lives under the poverty line (2010). Chadians are so poor that they can't even afford a nine dollar bag of governmental meal to eat (Clarke, 2010). Due to there lack of money they are forced to eat groundnut oil residue, which is usually fed to goats, which only cost eighteen cents (Clarke, 2010). Chad's economic performance depends on rainfall, because of the types of goods they export. Chad also has a narrow commercial base. Since independence, both Chad's internal and external markets remain undeveloped; therefore, the nation never succeeded in developing a successful commercial export economy.
Chad's economy has long been troubled by its landlocked position, and high energy cost (Azevedo, Graham, and Nnadozie, 1997). They are also still feeling the effects of the years of civil war they were engaged in. Chad has poor transportation, inadequate natural resources, and continue to have political turmoil that has severely stunted their economic development. They are also highly dependent on foreign assistance to help their economy. Their economy is so bad that they are constantly in need of food aid to meet the hunger needs of their people.