Instructional planners should design a variety of experiences that will allow active participation of the learners. The gap that exist between the level at which students with learning disabilities perform as well as the demands of the curriculum that they normally are expected to cover is wide. As a result, incorporating instruction design and technology in their learning will certainly go a long way. Ginsberg and Karen (2008)argues that technology, whether instructional or assistive, has however, played uneven role within the individuals with learning disabilities since it was started. Moreover, technology can be said to be in a constant state of flux, and consequently, several authors have indicated the need to have appropriate experimental testing of the interventions. Currently, a number of schools are seeking to improve learning outcomes of the students while employing certain instructional design and technology theories not only to guide but also to enrich the literacy instruction for the students with disabilities. This article hence discusses the common instructional design and technology theories and models relevant for individuals with disability.
Response To Intervention Model(RTI)
Malhotra (2008)discusses the RTI model along with the Technological Pedagological Content Knowledge (TPACK). The Technological Pedagological Content Knowledge was developed as a form of instructional design framework with an aim of integrating technology, content, and pedagogy for design as well as for delivery of various types of content. Technological Pedagological Content Knowledge is an extension of Shulman’s (1987) classic construct of the pedagological content knowledge. This has actually been helpful construct especially while conceptualizing as well as organizing the role of information technology for delivering literacy instruction when teaching students with disability across all the tiers of the response to intervention model.
Basically, Technological Pedagological Content Knowledge guides the instructional design across the increasingly intensive setting among the students within the Response to Intervention model (Woolfolk-Hoy & Spero, 2005). There is an evidence based practices which directly address the literacy skills, an element that has been recognized as critical across all the tiers of a school’s instructional settings as well as that the practitioners providing services to the students within the RTI framework are armed with a menu of appropriate information technology options to assist the existing strategies.
More importantly, Ginsberg and Karen (2008)claims that there is need for the researchers who are working on the strategies and frameworks within this model, teacher educators along with the practitioners to reflect on the specific demands that are related to literacy native to the various content areas as well as to the curriculum standards. Similarly, the typical elements of response to Intervention framework like the...