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Literary Review On The Non Regular Teachers' Employment In Japan

1708 words - 7 pages

Introduction

Type of employment has been discussed in decade. Therefore, there are many discussions about type of employment such as non-regular employment in Japan.
The definition of non-regular (part-time, temporary, dispatched) employment is one of the type of employment which do not have full time contract. It also means that they are not hired directly by their employer without a predetermined period of employment. In addition, non-regular employment is not covered under public insurance systems including workers compensation, unemployment, health care and retirement pension(Conception 2011). Generally, they resister multiple temporary employment agency.
It is not only in the business sector but also in the education sector. Non-regular employed teachers work in the hourly-wage system because of finance issues in schools. It can be the reduction of labor cost, however it might be related to teachers’ motivation(NHK 2012). Evans (1998b) referred that “ Motivation is a condition, or the creation of a condition, that encompass all those factors that determine the degree of inclination towards engagement in an activity ”(p34). It may imply that motivation is important for efficient activities. Non-regular employed teachers in Japan might have less motivation than regular employment teachers as they have a temporal restriction due to hourly wage system. It means that they cannot work overtime. It also can affect student achievement, namely result of examination, and a trustful relationship with teachers. Thus, the first goal of the current research was to define impacts of non-regular employment teacher in secondary school. This study would be helpful for future recruitment in the secondary school.

Literature review
Explain background of non-regular employed teachers in japan
Comparing UK and Japan
Relation with type of employment and motivation

In existing research revealed that a type of employment has affected employees’ motivation (安藤 et al. 2011). According to the Employment Status Survey, the percentage of dispatched workers increased dramatically between 2002 and 2007 (Conception 2011). Recent research also has shown that proportion of non-regular employed teachers have increased in few years in Japan (NHK 2012). It is therefore very hard to be a regular teacher because of the declining birth rate. It has been caused that some school is in financial difficulties.
The kind of system has been existed many countries. In the UK, for instance, temporary teachers are similar to non-regular employment teachers. In the existing research about temporary teacher in the UK reported that the quality of these teacher various considerably, ranging from excellent to those lacking adequate teaching ability(Great Britain. Office for Standards in Education (England) 2004). Most part time teachers were well-qualified, earnest and capable because of mainly teaching in their specialist area and, they are mature and experienced (Great Britain. Office...

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