WHY PEOPLE TRAVEL: INTEGRATION OF THE FRAMEWORKS
Rational for the Integrated Frameworks
The theories presented in the literature section have been widely accepted in the tourism motivation and behavior studies. However, this paper will examine the tourist behavior based on the three theories/ frameworks, namely travel personality, travel career pattern, and strangeness and familiarity of tourist experiences. The selection of the integrated models are based on several reasons. Firstly, personality (Plog, 1974, 2001) is one of the main determinants of tourist behavior (Holden, 2005). Secondly, Cohen’s tourist typology are similar to those of Plog’s model in which organized and individual ...view middle of the document...
On their travel, they will either seek for novelty or avoid arousal.
Looking at Plog’s travel personality model, the dependable or psychocentrics tend to choose a touristy destination that is familiar with their home environment. This type of group are mainly driven by relaxation (Andreu, Kozak, Avci, & Cifter, 2005) that is the first stage of Pearce’s travel career ladder. Relate to Cohen’s framework, the dependable is the institutionalized tourists who seek familiarity. Venturers, on the other hand, are more likely to seek novel experiences and adventurous. Attached to Cohen’s noninstitutionalized (drifter) tourists, they will choose a new and unique destination (strangeness concept). These type of people are highly motivated by the highest level of travel career (i.e. fulfillment) (Figure 1).
In Plog’s study, a certain group of personality (e.g. near venturers) make a travel decision based on recommendation of the previous group (venturers). Venturers can be classified as those who discover and introduce a new destination, that later will be trailed by the near venturers. At this stage, a destination is still at an introductory stage. When more mid-centric group enters the destination, then it will reach maturity. The destination will eventually decline and loose its viability when more visited by dependables. This kind of behavior is similar to the herding effect or habit persistency concepts where venturers act as the innovator and information provider (Banarjee, 1992 as quoted in Andreu et al, 2005).
Overlooking Cohen (1972, 1979) and Plog (1974, 2001) models, there is a similarity in which the type of tourist is aligning with their holiday destination preference. Organized and individual mass tourists in Cohen’s and dependable and near dependable in Plog’s prefer familiar surroundings. Drifter and explorer (Cohen’s) and near venturers and venturers (Plog’s) are more appealed to the strange surroundings (Nickerson, 1989).
Some other factors on these frameworks can be taken into account. In Cohen’s study, explorers and drifters are more attached to Plog’s venture destination life cycle, however, they may also go to a dependable destinations by not using tourists’ establishment. This situation will also correspond to the individual and organized mass tourists who go to venture destinations using a complete tour package (Chen et al, 2011). In the case of travel career needs, dependable tourist may also be driven by the fulfillment or self-actualization need as a venture is motivated by relaxation. Thus, the travel career level can go the other way around (Figure 1). Furthermore, the same tourist may have different travel career level according to the travel situation (Jang & Cai, 2002).
Distance Decay Effect
Several tourism decisions (e.g. where to go and should we go) are influenced by distance (Walmsley & Jenkins, 1992 as cited in Mill and Morrison, 2009). Distance has been known to have impact on tourist volume and plays a...